History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. Cave Paintings

1.1. definition: beautiful, detailed, and colorful representations found on the inside of cave walls and ceilings

1.2. Lascaux, France

1.3. Why were cave paintings made?

1.3.1. 1. to tell stories or recount events that already happened

1.3.2. 2. as instructional visual aid to help teach us about hunting strategies

1.3.3. 3. for magical or religious reasons that if an image of a desired event was painted it might come true

1.4. What was used to create the paints for these paintings?

1.4.1. water

1.4.2. plant juice

1.4.3. animal blood

1.4.4. soil

1.4.5. charcoal

1.4.6. hematite

1.5. How did they paint the paintings onto the wall?

1.5.1. They made brushes out of sticks, small stones, leaves, animal hairs.

1.6. Oldest known site: Altamira, Spain

1.7. What was drawn?

1.7.1. large animals

1.7.2. Tracings of human hands

1.7.3. abstract patterns

2. Cuneiform

2.1. Created by the Sumerians

2.1.1. theocratic culture ruled by a priest king

2.1.2. skilled artisans who created vases, bowls, and other types of pottery

2.1.3. music seemed to be an important part of their lives

2.1.4. Lived in Sumer which is considered the cradle of civilization because Cuneiform was created there

2.2. First written language

2.2.1. Created to keep track of business transactions

2.2.2. written on clay tablets

2.3. began as a series of pictograms

2.3.1. It then got more abstract over time, evolving into a wedge-shaped language

2.4. How was it written?

2.4.1. they would use a wedge shaped stylus made from reeds to make impressions on the clay

3. Hieroglyphics

3.1. believed to be influenced by cuneiform

3.2. Definition: a formal writing system that contained a combination of logographic and alphabetic elements

3.2.1. logogram: visual symbols representing ideas of objects

3.3. derived from two greek words: "Hiero" meaning sacred and "glyphic" meaning engraving or writing

3.4. recorded and communicated about religion and government

3.5. scribes were the ones who wrote the heiroglyphics

3.5.1. Scribes were usually students, military leaders, and priests

3.6. The Rosetta Stone was found in 1798 by Napoleon and his troops

3.6.1. three languages were on it

3.6.1.1. Ancient Greek

3.6.1.2. Demotic (a local Egyptian language)

3.6.1.3. Hieroglyphics

3.6.2. Currently resides in The British Museum

3.6.3. helped discover what the hieroglyphics meant

3.6.4. Jean Francois Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphics

4. The Phonetic Alphabet

4.1. Theories for the origin

4.1.1. direct variation of hierogpyphics

4.1.2. ties with Cuneiform

4.1.3. an independent creation

4.2. one sign represents one spoken sound

4.3. used complex characters that were hard to learn

4.3.1. this made it more contrasting with the other scripts at the time

4.4. Types of lettering used

4.4.1. rigid formal scripts

4.4.1.1. used for important manuscripts and official documents

4.4.2. quicker informal

4.4.2.1. letter and routine types of writing

4.5. Serifs

4.5.1. finishing off strokes

4.5.2. helped make writing more legible

4.5.3. originated from the carving of words into stone

4.6. Baseline and Descender

4.6.1. baseline - the line on which most letters sit

4.6.2. descender - something that goes under the baseline

4.6.3. made sure everything was perfectly aligned

4.7. the Greeks adopted this type of letter form.

5. The Book

5.1. The Scroll

5.1.1. Constructed two ways

5.1.1.1. with a long piece of papyrus

5.1.1.2. separate sheets of paper glued together at the edges

5.1.2. Rolled Up

5.1.2.1. simply rolled up

5.1.2.2. wooden rollers at each to help roll it up

5.1.3. Drawbacks

5.1.3.1. only allowed for sequential usage (you had to go through the entire text of the scroll to find one thing)

5.2. The Codex

5.2.1. Advantages over the scroll

5.2.1.1. more compact

5.2.1.2. more sturdy

5.2.1.3. easy to reference certain parts of the book

5.2.2. Pages made of parchment

5.2.2.1. Parchment - a substrate made from animal skin

5.2.2.1.1. hair was removed from animal, the skin was smoothed out, the hide was socked in water and the calcium, flour, and salt were added

5.2.2.2. vellum was a finer quality of parchment

5.2.2.3. lasted longer than papyrus

5.2.3. Christianity adapted this type of text

5.2.3.1. used it for bibles and scriptures

5.2.3.2. illuminated manuscript made the pages decorative and had many illustration

5.2.3.2.1. the printing press replaced illuminated manuscript

6. The Gutenberg Press

6.1. Invented by Johannes Gutenberg

6.1.1. his love for reading and spending time working with his father motivated him to find a better way to produce books

6.1.2. introduced oil-based ink

6.2. a printing press is a hand press in which ink is rolled over the raised surface of movable hand-set letters held within a modern frame

6.3. Developed from the screw-type for pressing grapes and olive seeds

6.4. Uses movable type

6.4.1. Movable type is the system of printing that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document

6.5. Used metal type instead of wooden type

6.5.1. He felt that it was better because it could be reproduced more quickly after a single mold was made

6.5.2. created his metal type with an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony that would melt at low temperatures, cast well in the dies, and were more durable in the press

6.6. How did it impact communication?

6.6.1. 1. perfected script and made it easier to read

6.6.2. 2. books were made more rapidly

6.6.3. 3. current information could be shared locally and around the world

6.6.4. 4. cost of books decreased allowing more people to read them

6.6.5. 5. the population became more literate

6.6.6. 6. book trade began to flourish as well as industries such as papermaking

6.6.7. 7. economies became stronger

6.6.8. 8. art and science began to flourish

6.7. Major printing processes still used today

6.7.1. 1. relief printing

6.7.2. 2. intaglio

6.7.3. 3. porous

6.7.4. 4. lithograph

7. The Linotype Machine

7.1. 90 character keyboard

7.1.1. black keys were for lowercase letters

7.1.2. while keys were for uppercase letters

7.1.3. blue keys were for punctuation, digits, small capital letters, and fixed width spaces

7.1.4. matrix- mold for letterforms

7.1.5. slug- the assembled line of type

7.2. Invented by Christopher Sholes

7.2.1. Tested by Clephane

7.2.1.1. he needed an easier way to transcribe his notes and legal briefs and to produce multiple copies

7.3. Allowed operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis

7.4. the name "linotype" comes from the fact that the machine produces and entire line of metal type at once

7.5. Changed the newspaper industry by making it possible for a small number of operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis

8. Photography

8.1. Camera Obscura

8.1.1. Originally used by scholars and philosophers as a way to observe light

8.1.2. What is it?

8.1.2.1. an optical devices that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

8.1.3. Camera Obscura Room in the 1500s

8.1.3.1. a darkened room with a convex lens inserted into a wall

8.1.4. Shrunk into the size of a portable box in the 17th and 18th centuries

8.2. originated from the Greek words for light and writing

8.3. First successful photograph was made in 1827 by Joseph Niepce

8.4. Photographic Processes

8.4.1. Daguerreotype

8.4.1.1. invented by Louis Daguerre

8.4.1.2. Image is exposed to a light-sensitive metal sheet producing a positive and then is preserved with salt

8.4.2. Calotype

8.4.2.1. invented by William Fox Talbot

8.4.2.2. subject is exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative

8.4.2.3. allowed for more than one copy of the photograph to be made

8.4.3. Wet Collodion Process ( Wet Plate Process)

8.4.3.1. invented by Archer

8.4.3.2. glass plates are coated with collodion

8.4.4. Dry Plate Process

8.4.4.1. invented by Richard Maddox

8.4.4.2. glass plates are coated with gelatin instead of collodion

8.4.4.2.1. gelatin is a colorless water soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissue

8.5. George Eastman

8.5.1. patented a film that had a gelatin base and was coated with emulsion

8.5.2. Established Eastman Kodak Company

8.5.3. marketed The Brownie to the general public in 1900 to bring photography to the masses

8.6. James Clerk Maxwell

8.6.1. took the first color photograph

8.7. Edwin Land

8.7.1. patented the invention of instant photography

8.7.1.1. instant photography is a one step process from developing and printing photos

8.8. Zoopraxiscope

8.8.1. a device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion

9. Computer

9.1. Konrad Zuse

9.1.1. credited with inventing the first freely programmable computer

9.2. The Mark series of computers was invented by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper

9.2.1. created for the navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations

9.3. Univac

9.3.1. the first commercial computer

9.3.2. designed by John Preseper Eckert and John Machly

9.3.3. Stands for Universal Automatic Computer

9.4. IBM

9.4.1. Stands for International Business Machines

9.4.2. developed IBM701 EDPM Computer in 1953

9.4.3. Fortran

9.4.3.1. the first high level programming language

9.5. Spacewar

9.5.1. invented by Steve Russel and Mit

9.6. The Computer Mouse

9.6.1. Named a mouse because of the tail connected to the computer

9.6.2. invented by Douglas Englebart

9.6.3. sought to use this tool to make the computer more user friendly

9.7. The first internet!

9.7.1. Called ARPRNET

9.7.2. Developed to protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers

9.8. Intel 4004

9.8.1. a single chip microprocessor

9.8.2. produced by Intel

9.9. The first Memory Disk

9.9.1. a floppy disk

9.9.2. Introduced by IBM

9.10. The first Ethernet

9.10.1. developed by Robert Metcalfe and Xerox

9.11. Computers introduced in the mid 1970s

9.11.1. Skelbi

9.11.2. Mark-8

9.11.3. Altair

9.11.4. IBM 5100

9.11.5. Apple 1 and 2

9.11.6. TRS-80

9.11.7. Commodore PET

9.12. MS-DOS

9.12.1. Introduced by Bill Gates and Microsoft

9.12.2. a computer operating system

9.13. PC = Personal Computer

9.14. Apple Lisa

9.14.1. Named after Steve Jobs' daughter

9.14.2. introduced in 1983

9.14.3. had a GUI (graphical user interface) which was developed by Xerox

9.15. Apple Macintosh

9.15.1. introduced by Apple in 1984

9.16. Bill gates and Microsoft introduced Windows in response to Apple's operating system