HIstory of Visual Communication

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HIstory of Visual Communication by Mind Map: HIstory of Visual Communication

1. Computer mouse

2. Polariod

3. Painting of a bull

4. Phonetic Alphabet

5. Cuneiform

6. Cave Painiting

6.1. Cave Painting?

6.1.1. A beautiful,detailed, colorful representation found inside cave walls and ceilings

6.2. What did they draw?

6.2.1. They usually drew Large animals, tracings of human hands,abstract pattern

6.3. Why did they create cave painting?

6.3.1. 1.To tell stories or recount events that already happened

6.3.2. 2.As instructional visual aid to help teach about hunting techniques

6.3.3. 3. For magical or religious reasons that if an image of a desired event was painted it might come true

6.4. What did they use to draw?

6.4.1. The paints were made of:Water, Plant juice, Animal blood, Soil, Charcoal,Hematite

6.4.2. To make the brush they used:Sticks, Small stones, Leaves, and Animal hair

7. Sumerians / Cuneiform

7.1. Sumerians were the first to create the Cuneiform

7.2. What do we know about the Sumerians?

7.2.1. 1.A theocratic culture ruled by a priest king

7.2.2. 2.Skilled artisans who created vases, bowls, and other types of pottery

7.2.3. 3.Music seemed to be an important part of their life as well

7.3. Why were Cuneiforms made?

7.3.1. To help keep track of these business transactions

7.4. What did they use to write?

7.4.1. They used Clay tablet to write on

7.4.2. Also used wedge shaped stylus made from reeds to make impressions into the clay surface

7.5. Cuneiforms began to make a series of pictograms

8. Hieroglyphics

8.1. Meaning of Hieroglyphics?

8.1.1. Two Greek words “Hiero” means sacred and “Glyphic” means engraving or writing

8.2. Hieroglyphics?

8.2.1. Its a formal writing containing combination of logographic and alphabetic elements

8.3. Rosetta Stone?

8.3.1. Its a stone thats has three different languages on it which was:Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Demotic, Greek

8.4. Rosetta Stone

9. Egyptians

9.1. Why is it Important to Keep the Records and to Communicate?

9.1.1. To communicate information about religion and government.

9.2. Who were Scribes and Why?

9.2.1. MIlitary leaders: To communicate while in battle.

9.2.2. Priests:To read and write instructions on the walls and on papyrus for rituals

9.3. Who invaded Egypt in 1798?

9.3.1. Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France

9.4. Egypt

10. Phonetic Alphabet

10.1. Theories for the origin of the Phoenician alphabet?

10.1.1. 1) Direct variation of Hieroglyphics

10.1.2. 2)Ties with Cuneiform or an independent variation

10.2. Long term effects that the alphabet have on social structures of other civilizations?

10.2.1. 1.It was the first wide spread script

10.2.2. 2.Its simplicity allowed it to be used in multiple languages

10.2.3. 3.Disintegrated class divisions between royalty and the common man

10.3. Effects on class divisions?

10.3.1. Disintegrated class divisions between royalty and the common man

10.4. Two distinct styles of lettering that were used?

10.4.1. A rigid, formal script was used for important manuscripts and official documents

10.4.2. A quicker, informal style was used for letters and routine types of writing

10.5. Serif is the Finishing off strokes

10.6. Baseline is the line where most lines seat

10.7. Descender is the portion of a letter that extends below the baseline of the font

11. The Books

11.1. Scrolls

11.1.1. How were scrolls made?

11.1.1.1. 1) With a long continuous piece of papyrus

11.1.1.2. 2) Separate sheets glued together at the edges

11.1.2. Drawbacks?

11.1.2.1. They only allowed for sequential usage which is the reader must read the text in the order it was written

11.2. Codex

11.2.1. Codex?

11.2.1.1. Covered and bound collection of hand written pages

11.2.2. What are the advantages of a codex versus a scroll?

11.2.2.1. Its compactness, sturdiness and ease of reference

11.3. Parchment

11.3.1. Parchment?

11.3.1.1. A substrate made from animal skin such as sheep, goats, and cows

11.3.2. How were Parchments made?

11.3.2.1. Hair and far removed and skin was smoothed out the hide was soaked in water. Calcium, flour and salt were added. Then they stretched out and dried

11.4. Vellum

11.4.1. Vellum?

11.4.1.1. A finer quality of parchment made from skins and young calves

11.5. Illuminated Manuscript

11.5.1. Illuminated manuscript?

11.5.1.1. They wrote all text by hand but also adorned each page with elaborate illusions and ornamentation

11.5.2. What does “illumination” refer to?

11.5.2.1. The borders, illustrations and ornamentation added to each page of text

12. Linotype Machine

12.1. What led Clephane to the inventions of the typewriter and the Linotype machine?

12.1.1. Wanted to find an easier way to transcribe his notes and legal briefs and to produce multiple copies

12.2. What did the Linotype machine allow to do?

12.2.1. Allowed type to be set mechanically rather than by hand

12.3. Where was the first Linotype machine installed?

12.3.1. In the Printing office in The New York Tribune in July 1886

12.4. Linotype Keyboard

12.4.1. White Keys

12.4.1.1. Uppercases

12.4.2. Black Keys

12.4.2.1. Lowercases

12.4.3. Blue Keys

12.4.3.1. Punctuation, digits, small capital letters and fixed width spaces

13. Gutenberg Press

13.1. Printing press?

13.1.1. Hand Press which the ink was rolled over the raised surface of movable handset letters held within a wooden frame

13.2. Who introduced modern book printing?

13.2.1. Johannes Gutenberg

13.3. What motivated Gutenberg to find a better way to produce books?

13.3.1. By going with his dad to work and his love of reading motivated him

13.4. Mmoveable type?

13.4.1. the system of printing that uses moveable components to reproduce the elements of a document( individual letters and punctuations)

13.5. Matrix?

13.5.1. Hard metal punch is hammered into a softer copper bar

13.6. First book to be printed?

13.6.1. Bible

13.7. How did the Gutenberg Press impact communication?

13.7.1. 1.Perfected script and made it easier to read

13.7.2. 2. Books were made more rapidly

13.7.3. 3. Current information could be shared locally and around the world

13.7.4. 4. Cost decreased allowing more people to buy them

13.7.5. 5. Demand grew.Population became more literate

13.7.6. 6. Readers wanted books written in their own languages and a greater variety

13.7.7. 7. Book trade began to flourish as well as industries such as papermaking

13.7.8. 8.Economics became stronger

13.7.9. 9. Art and Science began to flourish which led to the beginning of the Renaissance

13.8. What are the four major printing process still utilized today?

13.8.1. 1.Relief Printing

13.8.2. 2.Intaglio

13.8.3. 3.Porous

13.8.4. 4.Lithography

14. Computer

14.1. Mark series of computers?

14.1.1. Designed by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper

14.2. IBM?

14.2.1. International Business machine

14.3. Computer mouse?

14.3.1. Designed by Douglas Engelbart

14.3.2. Why was this tool nicknamed the mouse?

14.3.2.1. Because of the wire connected to the computer.

14.4. Arpanet?

14.4.1. The first computer

14.4.2. Why was it developed?

14.4.2.1. To protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers

14.5. Intel 4004?

14.5.1. The first single chip microprocessor

14.5.2. Developed by Intel

14.6. Floppy Disk?

14.6.1. Also called Memory Disk

14.6.2. Introduced by IBM

14.7. MS-DOS?

14.7.1. Introduced by Bill Gates and Microsoft

14.7.2. It is a Computer operating system which was packaged with the IBM PC

14.8. PC?

14.8.1. Personal Computer

14.9. GUI?

14.9.1. Graphical user interface

14.9.2. The first computer that had GUI was the LIsa Computer, introduced by Apple

14.9.3. The first GUI was made by Xerox

15. Photography

15.1. Camera Obscura?

15.1.1. Dark Chamber, It;s an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

15.2. Where does the word "Photography" come from?

15.2.1. Derived from the Greek words for light and writing

15.3. Joseph Niepce?

15.3.1. Created the first successful photograph in 1827

15.4. Louis Daguerre

15.4.1. invented the first practical photographic process

15.4.2. The name of the progress is called Daguerreotype

15.5. William Fox Talbot

15.5.1. invented the Calotype process

15.6. Wet Collodion Process, or the Wet Plate Process?

15.6.1. The glass plates were coated with collodion, a colorless syrupy solution of nitrocellulose in ether

15.7. Dry plate negative

15.7.1. Invented by Richard Maddox

15.7.2. Used gelatin for the photographic plate

15.7.3. Gelatin?

15.7.3.1. Colorless water-soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissue

15.8. George Eastman

15.8.1. Made Eastman Kodak Company

15.8.2. Also made A camera called “Brownie” a $1 worth for the public

15.8.2.1. Brownie

15.9. Zoopraxiscope?

15.9.1. A device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion

15.10. The first color photograph was done by a Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell

15.11. Edwin Land invented the Instant Photographs