History of Visual Communicatons

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History of Visual Communicatons by Mind Map: History of Visual Communicatons

1. 30,000 yrs ago CAVE PAINTINGS

1.1. definition

1.1.1. beautiful, detailed and colorful representations found on the inside of cave walls and ceilings

1.2. Lascaux Cave

1.2.1. most famous cave painting site

1.2.2. closed because they were destroyed by carbon dioxide

1.3. 3 reasons why?

1.3.1. instructional

1.3.2. religious/superstitious

1.3.3. story telling

1.4. themes

1.4.1. large animals (bison, horses, deer)

1.4.2. tracings of human hands

1.4.3. abstract paintings

1.5. what was used for paint?

1.5.1. a mix of water, plant juice, animal blood, soil, charcoal and hematite

1.6. paint brushes

1.6.1. sticks, small stones, leaves, and animal hair were put together and used as brushes

1.7. Altamira Cave

1.7.1. located in spain

1.7.2. mostly red color because of the red clay

1.7.3. Discovered by Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola and his daughter Maria

1.8. Chauvet Pont d’Arc

1.8.1. Discovered by Eliette Brunell Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean Marie Chauvet

1.8.2. different techniques at this site

1.8.2.1. the walls were scraped clear of debris, 3D effect was created by etching around the edges also found fossilized remains, and items such as sticks and small stones which appear to have been fashioned into paint brushes

2. 3500 B.C. CUNEIFORM

2.1. why was it created?

2.1.1. to help keep track of business transactions

2.1.2. to keep records

2.1.3. communication

2.2. considered cradle of civilization

2.3. what did they write on and how?

2.3.1. clay tablets

2.3.2. they would wet the clay and form it into flat surfaces then they used wedge shaped stylus made from reeds to make the impressions

2.4. who created it?

2.4.1. Sumerians

2.4.1.1. who are Sumerians?

2.4.1.1.1. skilled artisans who created vases, bowls, and other types of pottery

2.4.1.1.2. theocratic culture ruled by a priest king

2.4.1.1.3. music seemed to be very important to them

2.4.1.1.4. practiced agriculture year round due to climate

2.5. Cuneiform started as a series of pictograms

2.6. first written language

3. HIEROGLYPHICS

3.1. what is it?

3.1.1. formal version of writing

3.1.2. similar to cuneiform

3.1.3. combination of logographic and alphabetic elements

3.1.3.1. a logogram is visual symbol representing ideas or objects

3.2. influenced by?

3.2.1. came from a Sumerian concept of expressing words in writing

3.3. the word comes from 2 Greek words HIERO which means sacred and GLYPHIC which means engraving or writing

3.4. Hieroglyphics contained information about religion and government

3.5. Rosetta Stone

3.5.1. the Rosetta Stone contained 3 languages: Egyptian hieroglyphics, Greek, and Demotic

3.5.2. this helped people to decipher hieroglyphics

3.5.3. french army members discovered it while building a fort

3.6. Books of the Dead

3.6.1. these were instructions and spells to help the dead Pharaohs find their way to the afterlife

3.7. Pyramids

3.7.1. pyramids contained all the Pharaoh's tombs and their greatest treasures and their book of the dead which is in hieroglyphics

3.7.1.1. this was so they would have everything they need for the afterlife

3.8. Jean Francois Champollion was the first to decipher the hieroglyphics on the stone

4. BOOKS

4.1. Scrolls

4.1.1. made by using papyrus or made up of separate sheets that were glued together

4.1.2. some were simply rolled up and others used wooden at each end

4.1.3. only allowed for sequential usage

4.2. Codex

4.2.1. covered and bound collection of handwritten pages

4.2.2. had compactness, sturdiness, ease of reference

4.2.3. Christianity used this format

4.2.4. used in Christianity for bibles and scriptures

4.3. Parchment

4.3.1. a substrate made from animal skin, such as sheep, goats, and cows

4.3.2. it was made by removing hair and fat and skin was smoothed out hide was soaked in water calcium, flour, and salt were added

4.3.3. it was more durable, parchment allowed these ancient books to still exist

4.4. Scribes

4.4.1. monastic monks became scribes

4.5. Vellum

4.5.1. a finer quality of parchment made from skins of young calves

4.6. Illuminated Mannuscript

4.6.1. Bible with drawings

4.6.2. illumination

4.6.2.1. the borders, illustrations, and ornamentation added to each page of the text

5. PHONETIC ALPHABET

5.1. Origin of the Phonetic Alphabet

5.1.1. a direct variation of hieroglyphics, ties with cuneiform, or an independent creation

5.2. Based On

5.2.1. the principle that one sign represents one spoken sound

5.3. Letters started with consonants

5.4. Success

5.4.1. the trade culture of the Phoenician merchants spread the use of the alphabet into parts of North Africa and Europe

5.5. first widespread script

5.6. common people could learn to write

5.7. Greek

5.7.1. the adaptation of the Phoenician letter forms

5.7.2. it has given rise to many other alphabets including the Latin alphabet

5.8. Lettering

5.8.1. a rigid, formal script was used for important manuscripts and official documents. a quicker informal style was used for letters and routine types of writing

5.9. Serif

5.9.1. finishing off strokes

5.9.2. originated from carving words into stone

5.9.3. contributed by adding little hooks to the tips of letters to prevent the chisel from slipping

5.9.3.1. created it by devising an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony they would melt at low temperatures cast well in the die more durable in the press hard metal punch is hammered into a softer copper bar, creating matrix then placed into a hand-held mold a piece of type is cast by filling the mold with molten metal

5.10. Baseline

5.10.1. the line that most letters sit on

5.10.2. the institution of the baseline contributed to type design by creating typography and penmanship

5.11. Descender

5.11.1. the top where the letters rest

6. GUTENBERG PRESS

6.1. the world's first movable type system was developed in China

6.1.1. it was carved from wood

6.1.2. movable type is metal type

6.1.3. better than previous type because it was quicker and more durable and lettering was uniform

6.2. a matrix is reused characters appearing anywhere within the book and will appear very uniform

6.3. Johannes Gutenberg is the inventor of the printing press

6.3.1. developed the screw-type for pressing grapes and olive seeds

6.3.2. hand press ink was rolled over the raised surface of the moveable handset letters held within a modern frame

6.3.3. he was motivated by working with his father and his love for reading

6.3.4. he experimented with metal typography

6.3.5. credited with the introduction of oil-based ink

6.3.6. invested his inventions with John Fust

6.4. first book to be printed

6.4.1. The Bible

6.5. Fust and Schoeffer took credit for the printing

6.6. paper was developed by Ts'ai Lun

6.6.1. it was developed in China

6.7. The Gutenberg Press impacted communication by:

6.7.1. perfecting script

6.7.2. made it easier to read

6.7.3. books were made more rapidly

6.7.4. current information could be shared locally and around the world

6.7.5. cost of books decreased

6.7.6. demand grew

6.7.7. population became more literate

6.7.8. readers wanted books written in their own languages and a greater variety

6.8. Caxton created the first book in English

6.9. first American News weekly:

6.9.1. The Boston Newsletter

6.9.2. John Campbell published

6.10. Lord Stanhope built a press completely from cast iron

6.11. four major printing processes still utilized today

6.11.1. relief printing

6.11.2. intaglio

6.11.3. porous

6.11.4. lithography

7. COMPUTERS

7.1. Konrad Zuse invented the first freely programmable computer

7.2. Howard Aiken Grace Hopper designed the mark series of computers

7.2.1. they were used for us navy gunnery and ballistic calculations

7.3. UNIVAC was the first commercial computer

7.3.1. designed by john presper eckert and john mauchly

7.3.2. it stood for universal automatic computer

7.4. IBM developed IBM701 E0PM computer

7.5. the first high level programming language was fortran

7.5.1. that stood for the IBM mathematical formula translating system

7.6. first computer game was spacewar

7.7. Douglas Engelbert invented the computer mouse

7.7.1. he wanted this tool so computers were more user friendly

7.7.2. it was called the mouse because of the tail that connected it to the computer

7.8. the first internet was called arpanet

7.8.1. was originally developed to protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers

7.9. the first single chip microprocessor was called Intel 4004 and Intel produced it

7.10. first memory disk was called the floppy disk

7.10.1. IBM introduced it

7.11. robert metcalfe and xerox made the first ethernet

7.12. microsoft made MS-DOS

7.13. scelbi mark-8, altair, ibm 5100, apple 1, apple 2, trs-80, commodore pet were all produced in the 1970s

7.14. PC stands for personal computer

7.15. apple produced lisa and the macintosh

7.16. microsoft created windows

8. PHOTOGRAPHY

8.1. in the 4th century the camera obscura was invented

8.1.1. it was a way to observe light

8.1.2. an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

8.1.3. a darkened room with a convex lens inserted into a wall

8.1.4. it became smaller and was the size of a portable box in the 17th and 18th centuries

8.2. the word originated from the greek words light and writing

8.3. joseph niepce was the first to create a successful photograph

8.4. daguerre invented the first practical photographic process

8.4.1. it was called daguerreotype

8.4.2. exposed a light sensitive metal sheet which created direct positive image

8.5. william fox talbot invented the calotype process

8.5.1. exposed onto light sensitive paper producing a paper negative

8.6. archer created the wet collodion process

8.6.1. use glass plates for the negative reduced exposure time to two or three seconds and the cost was less

8.7. richard maddox created the dry plate process

8.7.1. you use gelatin

8.7.1.1. gelatin is a colorless water soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissue

8.8. eastman founded Kodak

8.9. james clerk maxwell made the first color photograph

8.10. muybridge made the first motion picture