History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. 30,000 yrs ago CAVE PAINTINGS

1.1. a beautiful, detailed, and colorful representation found on the inside of cave walls and ceilings

1.2. Lascaux Cave

1.2.1. the most famous cave painting site

1.3. 3 reasons why created

1.3.1. religious/ superstitious

1.3.2. story telling

1.3.3. instructional

2. Cuneiform

2.1. ancient, wedge-shaped writing

2.2. created by the Sumerians

2.2.1. was made to help keep track of

2.3. began a series of pictographs

3. Hieroglyphics

3.1. a formal writing system that contained a combination of logographic and alphabetic elements

3.2. influenced by the concept of expressing words in writing

3.3. comes from two greek words

3.3.1. hiero means sacred and glyphic means engraving or writing

4. The Book

4.1. scrolls were conducted by a long continuous piece of papyrus and others were made of separate sheets glued together at the edges

4.2. a codex is a covered and bound collection of handwritten pages

4.3. the format that the religion Christianity adopted was the codex for the bible

4.4. illuminated manuscripts

4.4.1. books written by monks that refer to illustration and ornamentation

4.4.2. were reserved for religious texts because because they were laborious

5. Phonetic Alphabet

5.1. scholars believe it was a direct variation from Hieroglyphics

5.2. based on the principle: one sign represents one spoken sound

5.3. letters started with consonants

5.4. was successful because it contrasted with other scripts at the time and which used complex characters that were difficult to learn

5.4.1. allowed it to be used in multiple languages

6. Linotype Machine

6.1. a line casting machine used for imprinting

6.2. allowed type to be set mechanically rather than by hand

6.3. came from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once

7. Gutenberg Press

7.1. a printing press is a hand press in which ink was rolled over the raised surface of movable hand-set letters held within a modern frame

7.2. developed from the technology of the screw type

7.3. Gutenberg introduced oil-based ink

7.4. Gutenberg saw John Fust to invest his inventions. They made an agreement saying that if Gutenberg could not repay the loan with interest after 5 years, Fust would get the press, tools, and materials.

7.5. 4 major printing processes still utilized today

7.5.1. relief printing

7.5.2. intaglio

7.5.3. porous

7.5.4. lithography

8. History of Photography

8.1. camera obscura

8.1.1. an optical device the projects an image of its surroundings on a screen

8.1.1.1. in the 1500s it was a darkened room with a convex lense inserted into one wall

8.2. the name "photography" came from the Greek words for light and writing

8.3. in 1827 Joseph Niepce created the first successful photograph

8.4. Loius Daquerre created the first practical photographic process, the Daguerreotype

8.5. wet plate process is when glass plates are used for the negative to capture the image, coated with collodion, then exposed and are developed immediately

8.5.1. dry plate process uses gelatin instead of glass

8.6. Eastman invented roll film and created the Eastman Kodak Company

8.7. James Clerk Maxwell took the first colored photograph

9. History of Computers

9.1. Konrad Zuse invented the first freely programmable computer

9.2. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper designed the Mark series of computers that were created for the US navy and used for gunnery and ballistic calculations

9.3. UNIVAC was the first commercial computer created by John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly. It stands for Universal Automatic Computer

9.4. IBM

9.4.1. created the IBM701 EDPM computer

9.4.2. stands for International Business Machines

9.5. the first internet was called Arpanet

9.5.1. was developed to protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers

9.6. Douglas Engelbart created the computer mouse

9.6.1. it was called the mouse because of the tail that connected it to the computer

9.7. Bill Gates introduced MS-DOS, an operating system that is packaged with the IBM PC

9.7.1. PC stands for personal computer

9.8. Apple

9.8.1. introduced the Apple Lisa in 1983

9.8.1.1. was the first computer with a gui

9.8.1.1.1. Xerox developed the first gui

9.8.2. introduced the Apple Macintosh in 1984

9.9. Bill Gates and Microsoft introduced the Windows operating system in response to Apple's operating system