Nixons Presidency 1969 - 1974

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Nixons Presidency 1969 - 1974 by Mind Map: Nixons Presidency   1969 - 1974

1. Economy

1.1. Inherited a economy with a low unemployment rate of 3.3% but rising inflation.

1.2. New economic policy made in August 1971 which revesed many economic priciples that he had followed

1.2.1. A wage and price freeze

1.2.2. Tax cuts

1.2.3. 10% import tax to protect US business

1.2.4. Ending the 1944 Bretton-Woods Accord which linked the value of the dollar to the proce of gold

1.3. Public approval rating was immediate and an economic boom began which offset some of the damage of the Vietnamand this helped Nixon win the election in 1972

1.4. Energy Crisis 1973

1.4.1. Paying 30% more for for heating oil and petrol Caused massive queues for petrol and inflation to rise to 12.1% which casued a recession

1.4.2. This combined with a crashing stock market left the USA looking as destitute finacially as it felt politically

2. Civil Rights

2.1. Number of black students attending college increased and there was a rapid increase in the number of black studies courses being offered

2.2. Courses were founded at prestigous institutions like Duke, Cornell and Hravard

2.3. Shirley Chisholm became the first black woman elected to congree in 1969

2.4. The Congressional black cacus was founded in 1971 by the 13 black members

2.5. Anti-War Protests

2.5.1. Vietnam Protests didnt end - Despite the removal of 25,000 troops in June 1969 and a further 60,000 in December. Clebrities joined the protests. Most notably John Lennon, Bob Dylan and Muhammad Ali This furthermore prmoted the protests due to the participation from the celbs in them

2.6. Student Protests

2.6.1. Radical students blew up buildings at the University of Colorado becasue scholorship funds for black students were frozen

2.6.2. Students from San Diego, California set fire to banks

2.6.3. Ohio State students demanded the admission of more black students Seven students shot, Thirteen injured and 600 arrested

2.6.4. A pro black panther demonstration set yale law school libary books on fire

2.7. Feminsim

2.7.1. Gloria Steinem repeatedly stressed how little the Nixon administration had dne for womens issues Treied to get his wife to campaign for their cause

2.7.2. Nixon used executive power to increase the number of female appointments to the adminstration adn created a task force on Wmens Rights

2.7.3. Before 1973 Abortion was a crime in 30 states Legal cases such as rape, incest or a threat to the womens health in 20 states

3. Foreign Policy

3.1. Nixon announced his new foreign policy doctrine in Guam that called for the United States to act within its national interest and keep all existing treaty commitments with its allies.

3.2. Vietnam

3.2.1. In a nationally televised address, President Nixon announced military incursion into Cambodia, where communist sanctuaries were aiding the North Vietnamese and Vietcong.

3.2.2. South Vietnam, Viet Cong, and North Vietnam formally sign “An Agreement Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam” in Paris.

3.3. Nixon visited People’s Republic of China,ending a quarter of a century of hostility between the U.S. and China.

3.3.1. Nixon made a historic trip to China, meeting with Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai, and agreeing on a roadmap to peaceful relations through the Shanghai Communique. President Nixon called it ”the week that changed the world.”

3.4. USSR

3.4.1. Nixon journeyed to the Soviet Union and signed the historic agreement on the limitation of strategic arms with Premier Leonid Brezhnev. He became the first President to visit the Soviet Union.

3.4.2. Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev visited the United States for the Summitt II talks. A Prevention of Nuclear War Agreement is signed.

4. Watergate Scandal

4.1. Five men arrested after breaking into the democratic national committee headquarters.

4.1.1. de-bugging devices found in their possesions, thousands of dollars in cas as well as rolls of tape days later the white house refused involvement in the break in

4.2. An article in the washington post reported that a check for $25,000 earmarked for Nixon's 1972 re-election campaign was deposited into one of the bank accounts of one of the men arrested in the break in

4.3. Nixon announced that John Dean had conducted an internal investigation

4.3.1. no evidence of white house involvement was found

4.4. Washington post reported that John Mitchell had controlled a secret fund to finance intelligence gathering aggainst the democrats

4.4.1. John Mitchell threatened the publisher of the post (Bernstein and Katharine Graham) They also published these threats made by Mitchell

4.5. Nixon discuses paying the watergate bribers $1 million in cash to continue cover up

4.5.1. Nixon also reportedly asks for washington taping system disconnected Nixon later refused to hand over white house conversation recordings The tapes are belived to have had conversations to do with the cover ups of the scandal

4.6. During a televised press conference Nixon professes his innocence

4.7. The tapes Nixon released are found out to have been tempered with and a 18 minute gap in the recording is discovered

4.8. Nixon releases the full tapes of three conversations with Haldeman on June 23 1972.

4.8.1. 'SMOKING GUN' Transcripts revealed Nixon's involvement and the watergate cover-up

4.9. Nixon Resigns August 8, 1974

5. 1968 Presidential Election

5.1. Why'd Nixon Won

5.1.1. Divisions Between Democrats

5.1.2. Democrats Convention - Chicago Created Bad Image For Democrats

5.1.3. Slient Majority Conservative voters who do not participate in the public discourse

5.1.4. Southern Strategy and the 'Sun Belt' an effort to make Republican gains in the Solid South, which had been pro-Democratic since shortly after the American Civil War.

5.2. Result of The Election

5.2.1. Nixon won 43.4% of the popular vote beating Humphery (Democrat) and Wallace (Independent)

6. Key Figures In Nixons Administration

6.1. Spiro Agnew

6.1.1. Previously Govenor of Maryland

6.1.2. Gained national prominence in 1968 when in the aftermath of the riots in Baltimore Summoned leaders of black communtiy and castigated them

6.2. Henry Kissinger

6.2.1. Forgein Policy Based

6.2.2. National Security Advisor

6.3. Warren Burger

6.3.1. Cheif Justice (1969)

6.4. John Mitchell

6.4.1. Mananged Nixons Campaign in 1968

6.5. Arhur Burns

6.5.1. Chief economic adviser

7. Domestic Policy

7.1. Welfare and Taxation

7.1.1. Successfully shrunk OEO, closed 59 job corps centers and cut federal funding for housing and youth programmes

7.1.2. Proposed idea of using negative income tax Those who fell below certain level would pay no tax and receive a safety net payment

7.1.3. Spending on Welfare programmes rose Supplemental Security Income (SSI) was introduced Guranteed income for Elderly and Disabled citizens Sunstantial increases in Social Security, Medicure and Medicaid benefits Nixon proposed health insurance reform and federalisation of medicaid for poor families with dependent children This was followed in 1974 by a proposal for even more comprehensive helath insurance reform

8. 1972 Presidential Election

8.1. Why'd Nixon win

8.1.1. Detente Success in FP

8.1.2. Support from the 'Silent Majority'

8.1.3. CREEP Committee for the Re-Election of the President

8.1.4. Divsions between Democrats

8.1.5. Economic BOOST

8.1.6. Approval ratong of 60%

8.2. Result of the elcetion

8.2.1. Nixon won 60.7% of the popular vote and won every state apart from Massachusetts beating McGovern (Democrat) and Hospers (Indpendent)