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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Similarities and Differences

1.1. Children as active and motivated learners

1.2. Importance of challenge

1.3. Children aquire increasingly complex thinking

1.4. Play fosters learning

1.5. Cognitive development needs interactions with physical and social environment

1.6. Learning: CONSTRUCTIVISM: Children construct knowledge

1.6.1. Piaget: progressive, through stages, and by maturation: disequilibrium- equilibration

1.6.2. Vygotsky: can be guided/ accelerated by a more expert peer or adult: "mediated learning" (ZPD)

1.7. Child's maturation

1.7.1. Piaget: biological factors & stages of development and knowledge. Design schemes.

1.7.2. Vygotsky: biological dispositions & socio-cultural environment


1.8.1. Piaget: experiences with physical objects to learn how world works. Social interaction with people who may think and view differently (perceptions develop with age)

1.8.2. Vygotsky: "allows children to stretch themselves cognitively

1.9. Research

1.9.1. Piaget: clinical method: child complete given tasks

1.9.2. Vygotsky: socio-cultural theory: learning occurs in real life.

1.10. Piaget-children in charge of their own development (guided exploration)/ Vygotsky-children's development relies on adult support (support)

1.10.1. Piaget: natural exploration and manipulation through various routes to achieve their knowledge

1.10.2. Vygotsky: through formal & informal schooling, cultural tools & language:"Social construction of meaning

2. Actions

2.1. Play that has elements that are child driven and elements that are guided by adults

2.2. Application of Zone of Proximal Development- Scaffolding learning through guided reading

3. Vygotsky

3.1. Zone of Proximinal Development

3.2. Social Construction of Meaning (through formal schooling and informal interactions)

3.2.1. Vygotsky: natural disposition & socio- cultural interactions

3.3. Internalization

3.4. Play

4. Piaget

4.1. Identified Stages of Proximal Development-Age related similarities in problem solving strenghts and deficits

4.1.1. Piaget: child initiated, stimulated & direct efforts

4.2. Accommodation, Assimilation, Equilbration

4.3. Children construct knowledge from experience.

4.4. Children think in qualitatively different ways at different ages.

4.5. Understanding and ability in current stage a result of learning in previous stages