2. Organizational Influences and Project Lifecycle

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2. Organizational Influences and Project Lifecycle by Mind Map: 2.  Organizational Influences and Project Lifecycle

1. Organizations

1.1. Systematic arrangements of entities (people or depts) aiming to accomplish purposes while overtaking tasks

1.2. Cultural Norms

1.2.1. Group of phenomena that develop over time

1.2.1.1. Organizational Culture

1.2.1.1.1. Shaped by common experience

1.2.1.1.2. Unique

1.2.1.2. Styles

1.2.2. Established approaches to initiating and planning projects

1.2.3. Acceptable means to get work done

2. Organizational Structures

2.1. Enterprise environmenal factor

2.2. Affects resources

2.3. Types

2.3.1. Functional

2.3.1.1. (Clear Hierarchy)

2.3.1.2. (Grouped by specialty)

2.3.1.3. (Independence)

2.3.2. Matrix (dedicated & part-time)

2.3.2.1. Weak Matrix

2.3.2.1.1. (Coordinating PM)

2.3.2.2. Balanced Matrix

2.3.2.2.1. (PM under Functional mngr)

2.3.2.3. Strong Matrix

2.3.2.3.1. (Full-time PM)

2.3.3. Projectized

2.3.3.1. (Virtual collaboration)

2.3.3.2. (Depts)

2.4. Project Characteristics

2.4.1. Project mngr's authority

2.4.2. Resource availability

2.4.3. Who manages project budget

2.4.4. PM's role

2.4.5. PM Administrative Staff

2.5. * Composite organization

2.5.1. Involves all structures at diff. levels

2.6. Include

2.6.1. Strategic

2.6.2. Middle Mngmnt

2.6.3. Operational levels

3. Organizational Process Assets

3.1. Plans, processes, policies, procedures & knowledge bases

3.2. Lessons learnt

3.3. Historical info

3.4. Inputs to planning

3.5. 2 categories

3.5.1. Processes & Procedures

3.5.1.1. For conducting project work

3.5.1.2. Include:

3.5.1.2.1. Initiating & Planning

3.5.1.2.2. Executing, Monitoring & Controlling

3.5.1.2.3. Closing

3.5.2. Corporate knowledge base

3.5.2.1. For storing & retrieving info

3.5.2.2. Include:

3.5.2.2.1. Baselines, standards, labor hours, costs, budgets, databases, files from previous projects

4. Environmental Factors

4.1. Conditions not under team's control that influence the project

4.2. Inputs to planning processes

4.3. e.g. Organizational culture, governance, geog. distrib., infrastructure, risk tolerance, PM info syst.

5. Stakeholder

5.1. Individual, group or org. who may affect or be affected by the project

5.2. Internal / external

5.3. Responsibility & authority may change

5.4. Continuous identification process

5.5. Expectations to be managed by the stakeholder

5.6. Examples

5.6.1. Sponser

5.6.1.1. Provides resources & support

5.6.2. Customer / user

5.6.2.1. Approve project

5.6.3. Sellers / Business partners

5.6.4. Organizational group / Fnctal mngr

6. Project governance

6.1. Oversight function aligned with governance model & encompasses life cycle

6.2. Provides structure, processes, decision-making models & tools for managing

6.3. Controls the project while assuring success by defining & documenting

6.4. Defined by portfolio, program or sponsoring

6.5. Separate from org's governance

6.6. Describe in PM plan

7. Project success

7.1. Completion

7.2. Scope

7.3. Time

7.4. Cost

7.5. Quality

7.6. Resources

7.7. Risk

7.8. Include test period

8. Project team

8.1. PM

8.2. PM staff

8.2.1. Scheduling, budgeting

8.3. Project staff

8.3.1. Create deliverables

8.4. Supporting experts

8.4.1. Activities required to develop PM plan

8.4.2. Financial, logistics, legal, engineering, testing, TQM

8.5. User / Customer rep's

8.5.1. Accept product / deliverables

8.5.2. Sellers, business (partner) members

8.6. Basic Project team compositions

8.6.1. Dedicated

8.6.1.1. Full-time members

8.6.1.2. Report to PM

8.6.1.3. Clear authority

8.6.2. Part-time

8.6.2.1. Functional mngrs keep control

9. Project Lifecycle

9.1. Phases from initiation to closure

9.1.1. Broken down by objectives, results or milestones

9.1.2. Time-bounded

9.2. Documented within a methodology

9.3. Kinds

9.3.1. Predictive

9.3.1.1. Product & deliverables defined at beggining & changes are managed

9.3.1.2. "Fully plan-driven"

9.3.1.3. Scope, time & cost determined ASAP

9.3.1.4. Sequential/overlapping

9.3.1.5. CHanges carefully managed and have to be accepted after re planning

9.3.1.6. Preferred when product's well understood

9.3.1.7. "Rolling wave planning"

9.3.1.7.1. More general plan is available and more detailed planning is done when it arrives

9.3.2. Adaptative / Change-driven / Agile methods

9.3.2.1. Product's developed over iterations and scope is defined with detail when began

9.3.2.2. If scope and reqs are tough to define in advance

9.3.2.3. Respond to lots of change & stakeholder involvement

9.3.2.4. ALSO ITERATIVE & INCREMENTAL

9.3.2.4.1. But iterations are GAVE fast (2-4 weeks)

9.3.2.5. Small incremental improvements that add value

9.3.3. Iterative & Incremental

9.3.3.1. To reduce complexity with objectives & scope change

9.3.3.2. Project phases repeat

9.3.3.3. Sequential/overlapping

9.3.3.4. High-level vision & detailed scope's done 1 iteration at a time

9.4. Generic structure

9.4.1. DIFFERENT FROM PM PROCESS GROUPS

9.4.2. Costs are low, peak and drop quickly

9.4.3. Start

9.4.4. Organize & prepare

9.4.5. Carry out

9.4.6. Close

9.5. Independent from product lifecycle

10. Project phases / iterations

10.1. Collection of logically related project activs. that end in deliverables

10.2. Used when nature of the work is unique to a portion of the project or linked to a bigger deliverable

10.3. May overlap (might be beneficial)

10.4. State gate = milestone = phase review = phase gate = kill point

10.5. NO single ideal structure

10.6. Types of Project-Phase relationships

10.6.1. Sequential

10.6.1.1. Phase starts when previous's complete

10.6.1.2. Eliminates reducing- time option

10.6.2. Overlapping

10.6.2.1. Phase starts prior to previous completion

10.6.2.2. Fast tracking - Schedule compression technique

10.6.2.3. Possible additional resources

10.6.2.4. May increase risk or rework