Expert-other guides along until learner can do it on their own
Zone of proximal development: the next level a learner can reach
Learners hear more languages in different registers
Learners produce more language output
Take turns clarifying their own meanings
Language takes place in meaningful contexts
Clear, simple and explicit instructions need to be provided, Hard for ESL learners to understand complex instructions, Give instructions in multiple, different ways
Information gaps, Designed so that information needs to be created, reached for, or shared
Clear outcomes of the group work, Made clear before we start, Helps to understand, contextualize importance
Create cognitive tasks appropriate for all learners, So many different levels at SMIC, hard to do, Grouping, roles
Integrated with broader curricular topics, Easier for ES in single classrooms, Teachers working with other grade-level teachers, across curricular boundaries
All students involved, Grouping strategies (expert home grouping, see later), Assign roles, especially in middle school where students all want to do everything, ELD students given less challenging roles to build confidence
Give enough time, ESL students take longer to process hearing, reading, This can take flexibility on scheduling
Students need to be taught how to work in groups, Communicate expectations, Even at the high school level
A lot of the rules apply not just to ELD learners
Journal word bank
Herringbone technique – good for reading stories.
Teacher-guided reporting – ask questions to draw out info, trains students on reporting.
Interview – kids switch roles.
Students pretend to understand directions, but really didn’t; academic language!
E.g. italicized, bold, passage, paragraph, main idea.
Helps to understand the English language resources, concepts better