Goldstein's Methodology

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Goldstein's Methodology by Mind Map: Goldstein's Methodology

1. Living in Gloria's Favela

1.1. Knows Gloria, her family, and her contacts

1.2. Live in shacks and considered the poorest

1.3. Befriended when Gloria cleaned her apartment

1.4. Astonished at her living situation but stayed quite often

2. Laughter Out of Place in Brazil

2.1. "laughter seems to fall short of a direct weapon of rebellion"

2.2. "unable to revolt, they used their laughter to oppose official Brazilian racial, class, and gender ideology"

3. Women's Popular Culture in Brazil

3.1. Largely oral based

3.2. Quarto de Despejo

3.3. Gloria and her female friends

4. Holidays/Festivals

4.1. Stark differences between classes

4.2. "every day experiences in the shantytown rather than Carnival, were the "real" story"

5. Interviews

5.1. Conducted with women during the AIDS epidemic

6. Bad Taste

6.1. A middle class woman would cry during a soap opera. A lower class would laugh.

6.2. "Embedded in taste is the essence of power relations between classes..."

6.3. Laughing at rape, death, murder, bad treatment

7. Research

7.1. History of Brazil

7.2. Political affiliations help widen divides in class

7.3. "Brazil never developed a diversified economy"

7.4. "Sugar's history is connected to the transformation of social behavior"

7.5. The world capitalist system is effecting the different classes, according to Cardoso and Faletto

8. Earning a Living Wage

8.1. Donna Beth is paying Gloria 5 minimum wages for a month, unlike the one or two usually earned.

8.2. "...minimum salary designation is not really a living wage; it is a subsistence wage."

8.3. Connections with employers have their benefits

8.4. Class distinction- Middle class should have someone working for them

8.4.1. Domestic work is for dark-skinned people

8.5. Gloria's childhood was slavery.

8.5.1. Race and slavery was a huge part of Brazil's history

8.6. Sex Work vs Domestic

9. Black Cinderella

9.1. Dark skinned women seduce older, white, wealthier men (coroa)

9.2. "...being seen by others as more sensual and exotic because of their blackness and, on the other hand, feeling inferior and ugly in a world that values whiteness."

10. Racism

10.1. Brazilian has diverse colors

10.2. When the King came over, the Brazilians thought that color was an indication of class and sought to hide the poor dark colored people.

10.3. "Statements made in the process of "only joking" can often provide a window into deeply held and troubling feelings, such as though that deal with race."

10.3.1. Gloria did not like the girl her nephew got pregnant and was courting because she was as dark as him.

10.4. Eliana and Fausto not being recognized as grandmother and grandson.

11. School

11.1. Barely graduating elementary school

11.2. "The school system in Brazil is 'classed' from the very start..."

11.3. Education is not a high priority

11.4. Only a few students can pursue a higher education by taking the exam.

12. Childhood

12.1. Visiting Pedro Paulo in jail

12.1.1. Believes that woman should be responsible if she has sex/double standard of fidelity

12.1.2. Firmly believes in his gang, Comando Vermelho

12.1.3. Pedro didn't believe in "honest work" and did not want to slave away like his mother and generations before her.

12.1.4. "...those of his class and background do not have a great deal of social mobility"

12.1.5. Male oppositional culture

12.2. Different treatment of the middle and upper class children. "the child is king"

12.3. Street Childen

12.3.1. Off-duty cops are the death squad and go out shooting children that live on the streets

12.3.2. Different portrayals of street children in Brazil in the media

12.3.2.1. Babenco portrayed them as criminals

12.3.2.2. The children as people trying to live and deal with being on the streets was not portrayed.

12.3.3. "Nurtured" children and "Nurturing" children

12.3.3.1. Nurturing children take on adult roles, help their mothers out and take care of household

12.3.3.2. Nurtured children are the result of the middle and upper class treatment

12.3.4. Female children are treated differently on the streets, especially when they are "sexually initiated."

12.3.5. "being cruel in order to be kind"

12.3.5.1. Gloria's parenting is said to be very cruel but her way of making sure that the children don't end up in the streets or go to gangs.

13. Gangs

13.1. Gangs are considered protection but also a burden

13.1.1. They employ young men

13.1.2. The author was introduced to the gang leader in charge of Felicidade Eterna

13.1.3. They protect the Eterna especially from the police

13.1.3.1. Having at least one good relationship with an officer can help alleviate police brutality in Eterna.

13.1.4. Told the residents to get off the streets when there was going to be a fight.

13.2. "...lacks the centralization and organization-and therefore the connection with the state-"

13.2.1. "Revenge is a stand-in for a legal system that is absent or dysfunctional"

13.3. Local gangs are like the police of the Eterna

13.3.1. Man sexually abusing his two stepdaughters and keeping them from school was beaten up and expelled by the gang.

13.4. Gangs are deemed as necessary for the protection of the favela.

13.5. "Violence is experienced in profoundly different intensities according to socioeconomic class."

13.5.1. It influences the view of police in the favela

14. Church

14.1. Filomena was a part of the church until the death of Adilson

14.2. Soneca turned to the church after the death of Silvio, her love.

14.3. "Religious belonging...protective symbol of neutrality and nonparticipation in the escalating violence..."

14.4. "It seems as if women are choosing religious conversion to ward off the effects of oppositional culture..."

15. Sexuality

15.1. Gloria's religious mother had a sexual dream

15.2. O Amor Natural (1996) emphasized that sexuality was a central part of Brazil.

15.3. Transgendered people are accepted but the fact of them having the wrong sexual part is used to talk about in private.

15.4. "Bawdy sexual humor is heard endlessly, and it is practiced by young and old alike."

15.5. Clothing choices emphasize sexuality and differences between Brazil and other countries. It is normal to be complimented in public and women like to be wanted sexually.

15.6. Food and eating are related to sexual activity. Also, animals are used such as galinhas (chickens) for women who have multiple sexual partners.

15.7. "Women expect men to be providers, and this is a key element in a woman's recognition of a partner's good qualities."

15.8. Men are considered to always cheat because it's in their nature. Women do it for revenge and are expected to be faithful.

15.8.1. The belief that men need access to sex.

15.9. Soneca remarked on being able to use a man to provide for her and it is considered important.

15.9.1. "...women overturning the gender hierarchy embedded in the eating metaphors that make men symbolically dominant in the language of sexuality."

15.10. Desires for daughters to remain virgins until they are with a partner that can support them.

15.11. Women from the street are more susceptible to sexual advances.

15.12. Stepfathers have been known to touch females who are not their daughters.

16. Rape

16.1. Claudia and Anita's rape are often retold

16.1.1. "The telling of the robbery and rape story provided a way for sexuality, violence, and female victimization to be dealt with through humor."

16.2. Rape is something that you don't go the police or authorities for. Sexuality of lower-class women isn't as important or significant for higher-class people.

16.3. "Husbands, fathers, and brothers try to protect the bodies of their wives, daughters, and sisters, to which their own honor and reputation are tied."

17. Conclusion

17.1. Everyone in the family was delighted to know that one of the rapists was killed. Gloria wanted them dead for what they did to her daughters.

17.2. Laughter is inspired from various things. Mostly pain, fear, and negative feelings.

17.3. Lower-class women aren't as weak and defenseless as other people might think. They look out for themselves and especially their family.

17.4. Maybe things will be different in Brazil. Such as higher wages and more jobs so Gloria won't have to work so hard and far away to provide for her family. Not to mention the other people in the favelas in Brazil. A stronger government influence where she won't have to rely on gangs to get justice for the crimes committed against her or her family and friends. And her sons can freely go without fear of police.