Trotsky's Life

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Trotsky's Life by Mind Map: Trotsky's Life

1. tried to continue the war. attacked austria in June 1917, but after initial success, the germans moved in and the russians were defeated.

2. Terror

2.1. totalitarian state

2.2. CHEKA arrested and killed opponents

2.3. censorship

2.4. Lenin said a 'dictatorship of the poletariat was needed until russia was fully communist'

3. red guards

3.1. well trained

3.2. dedicated

4. Germans supported LENIN to remove russia from the war

5. Tsar and tsarina

5.1. unpopular

5.2. hated after bloody sunday

5.3. tsar blamed for WW1 defeats

5.4. tsarina left in charge while Tsar is in charge of the army

6. february revolution

6.1. WHY?

6.1.1. weaknesses

6.1.1.1. peasants

6.1.1.2. poverty

6.1.1.3. corrupt autocracy

6.1.1.4. okhrana

6.1.1.5. censorship

6.1.1.6. lack of support

6.1.2. war

6.1.2.1. army badly led

6.1.2.2. army poorly equiped

6.1.2.3. huge defeats

6.1.2.3.1. tannenburg

6.1.2.3.2. Japan

6.1.2.4. anger and unrest

6.1.3. Attacks and oppostian

6.1.3.1. wanted communist government

6.1.3.2. DUMA

6.1.3.2.1. angry over lack of power

6.1.3.2.2. didn't support the government

6.1.3.3. social revolutionary party

6.1.3.4. social democratic party

6.1.3.4.1. mensheviks

6.1.3.4.2. bolsheviks

6.1.4. reforms failed

6.1.4.1. STOLYPIN had tried

6.1.4.1.1. Primeminister

6.1.4.2. let kulaks buy their own land

6.1.4.3. last chance to reform was lost

6.1.5. industrialisation

6.1.5.1. created huge urban workforce

6.1.5.2. terrible condition

6.1.5.3. disaffection in petrograd

6.2. EVENTS

6.2.1. 7 th March

6.2.1.1. steel workers go on strike

6.2.2. 8th March

6.2.2.1. international womens day

6.2.2.1.1. bread riots

6.2.3. 10th March

6.2.3.1. half workforce on strike

6.2.3.1.1. Tsarina orders troops to stop them

6.2.4. 11th March

6.2.4.1. troops fired at crowds

6.2.4.2. tsar dissolves the DUMA

6.2.5. 12th March

6.2.5.1. soldiers joined riots

6.2.5.2. DUMA set up a 12 man 'provisional government' led by KERENSKY

6.2.5.3. soldiers and workers set up 'petrograd soviets'

6.2.6. 15th March

6.2.6.1. Tsar abdicates

6.3. Army abandoned Tsar

6.3.1. 8th March 1917

6.3.1.1. there were riots in petrograd about the food shortages and the war

6.3.2. 12th March 1917

6.3.2.1. the soldiers mutinied and refused to put down the riots. GOVERNMENT LOST CONTROL OF THE COUNTRY

6.3.3. 13th March 1917

6.3.3.1. Duma went to tsar and told him to abdicate

7. November revolution

7.1. events

7.1.1. 6th november

7.1.1.1. - red guards take over bridges/ telephone exchanges

7.1.2. 7th november

7.1.2.1. winter palace

7.1.2.2. provisional government leaders arrested

7.1.2.3. - red guards take over banks, government buildings and railways

7.1.3. 8th november

7.1.3.1. new communist government

7.2. why they succeeded

7.2.1. government

7.2.2. terrible conditions

7.2.3. peasants

7.2.4. War

7.2.5. Bolsheviks

7.2.6. Kornilov

7.2.7. 'peace,bread land'

7.2.8. party newspaper Pravda (means truth)

7.2.9. Financed publicity campaigns

7.2.10. LENIN

7.2.10.1. Brilliant leader

7.2.10.2. great organiser

7.2.10.3. single minded

7.2.11. central committee sent orders to soviets who sent them to factories

7.2.12. demanded total obedience

8. Provisional Government

8.1. the petrograd soviets were very powerful it built up a nationwide network of soviets which took their orders from it. Order number 1-forbid soviets and workers to obey the provisional government unless the soviets agreed.

8.2. they did nothing to try end the power of the soviets

8.3. Terrible conditions

8.3.1. inflation and hunger got worse because the war didn't end

8.3.2. they didn't manage to end the food shortages

8.4. Peasants

8.4.1. started taking land

8.4.2. they sent troops to take back land this made the peasants VERY angry

8.5. war

8.5.1. there was naval mutiny

8.5.2. set up 'death squads' to kill deserters

8.6. Bolsheviks

8.6.1. LENIN published the plans for the 'april theses

8.6.2. 'Peace, Bread and land'

8.6.3. 'all power to the Soviets'

8.7. KORNILOV

8.7.1. provisional government had no control of the army

9. long term causes of the russian revolution.

9.1. all the intitutions that supported the monarchy-such as the Church, the nobility and the faithful loyalty of the peasants-come from the middle ages.

9.2. meanwhile new modern forces were threatening the monarchy such as the middle class, and industrial working class and Marxism.

9.2.1. KARL MARX

9.2.1.1. marx was a german jew who spent the majority of his life in exile as a result of his political beliefs. in his famous work, the communist manifesto. He outlined his theory of social change. this theory came to be known as marxism

10. Bloody sunday

10.1. 22nd January 1905

10.2. As they approached the troops paniked and open fired at the workers.

10.3. it is said that 96 people died and 333 wounded but the actual amount was about 1000 people dead and many more wounded.

10.3.1. hence the name ' bloody sunday'

10.4. this then sparked a wave of protesters.

10.5. a priest called Father Gapon, led a crowd of 200,000 workers through the streets of St Petersbourg to Tsar's winter palace. they intended to deliver a petition to Tsar, listening to their grievances, although Tsar was not in the palace.

11. LENINS russia

11.1. government changes

11.1.1. election November 1917 results:

11.1.1.1. Bolsheviks = 175 seats

11.1.1.2. social revolutionaries = 370 seats

11.2. :lenin did

11.2.1. closed asembilies

11.2.2. killed objectors

11.2.3. ruled by decree

11.3. Brest-litovsk

11.3.1. Bolsheviks ended the war in 1917

11.3.2. treaty gave good agricultural and industrial land to germany

11.3.3. Russia lost

11.3.3.1. Ukrane

11.3.3.2. Estonia

11.3.3.3. Latvia

11.3.3.4. Lithuania

11.4. Communist state

11.4.1. land taken from nobles and given to peasants

11.4.2. Elected committees of workers controlled factories

11.5. Communist society

11.5.1. Religions banned

11.5.2. churches destroyed

11.5.3. priests killed

11.6. labour law

11.6.1. 8 hour day

11.6.2. unemployment pay

11.6.3. pensions

11.6.3.1. New node

11.7. education

11.7.1. science encouraged

11.7.2. history and latin banned

11.7.3. people taught to read

11.8. Communist morals

11.8.1. divorce allowed

11.8.2. abortion allowed

11.8.3. greater equality for women

11.9. war communism

11.9.1. introduced during the civil war

11.9.2. factories taken over

11.9.3. strikes made illegal

11.9.3.1. strikers will be shot

11.9.4. rationing

11.9.5. peasants forced to give surplus food to government

12. the civil war

12.1. Causes

12.1.1. Challenges of the bolsheviks

12.1.1.1. social revolutionaires

12.1.1.2. mensheviks

12.1.1.3. Tsarists

12.1.1.4. Former army officers

12.1.1.5. former land lords

12.1.1.6. political opponents

12.1.1.7. white armies led by general YUDENICH and DENIKEN attacked from the west

12.1.1.7.1. Tried to right-wing/pro-tsar army corp in august 1917.

12.1.1.8. Admiral KOLCHAK attacked from the east

12.1.2. Czech legion

12.1.2.1. prisoners of war mutinied as they were being taken across Russia

12.1.2.2. took control of Trains-siberian railways

12.1.2.3. supported KOLCHAK

12.2. events

12.2.1. 1918

12.2.1.1. Tsar and family killed

12.2.2. 1919

12.2.2.1. red army defeated admiral KOLCHAK

12.2.2.2. British, French, Americans went home

12.2.3. 1920

12.2.3.1. last white army defeated in crimea

12.2.4. 1921

12.2.4.1. red army invaded Poland, defeated

12.2.4.2. famine and disease throughout Russia

12.2.4.3. millions dead

12.3. Why the BOLSHEVIKS won

12.3.1. whites army

12.3.1.1. were disunited

12.3.1.2. thousands of miles apart

12.3.1.3. easy to fight one by one

12.3.2. TROTSKY

12.3.2.1. brilliant leader of red army

12.3.2.2. excellent war strategies

12.3.2.3. clever tactics

12.3.3. Beliefs

12.3.3.1. many Russians believed they were fighting for a better world

12.3.3.2. others hated foreign armies

12.3.3.3. army enthusiatic and determined

12.3.4. war communism

12.3.4.1. factories nationalised

12.3.4.2. military discipline in factories

12.3.4.3. strikes made illegal

12.3.4.4. surplus food handed over to the government

12.3.4.5. rationing

12.3.4.6. sufficent army supplies

12.3.5. Terror

12.3.5.1. cheka murdered whites

12.3.5.2. terror was used to ensure loyalty and unity

12.3.6. bolsheviks had moscow/petrograd=factories and supplies

12.3.6.1. controlled railways=communication/supples

12.3.7. army of 300,000 men

13. NEP (new economic policy

13.1. cause

13.1.1. 1921 kronstadt sailors mutiny

13.2. Demanded

13.2.1. free speech

13.2.2. end to the war communism

13.2.3. free elections

13.2.4. free trade unions

13.3. bolsheviks concerned, bought in NEP.

13.3.1. it was opposed by some members of government as capitalism

13.3.2. but restored some prosperity

13.4. new small buisnesses

13.4.1. small factories returned to owners

13.4.2. small private buisnesses allowed

14. New node