Foundational Themes in Education

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Foundational Themes in Education by Mind Map: Foundational Themes in Education

1. Sociological Perspective

1.1. Economic

1.1.1. Goal to create democratic citizens

1.1.2. To what extent should teachers be politically neutral? (Conrad)

1.1.2.1. Doing nothing doesn't always mean you are being 'neutral'

1.1.2.2. Can't be a good role model for students if you conceal all of your opinions

1.1.3. Purpose of education is to either transform or maintain the status quo (Conrad)

1.2. Political

1.2.1. The School Act

1.2.1.1. Access to quality education

1.2.1.2. Equity

1.2.1.3. Flexibililty and choice

1.2.1.4. Responsiveness

1.2.1.5. Accountability

1.2.2. Development of multiple types of school systems in AB

1.2.2.1. Public

1.2.2.2. Francophone

1.2.2.3. Separate

1.2.2.3.1. Usually run by religious minorities

1.2.2.4. Charter

1.2.2.4.1. Teachers aren't part of ATA but still follow AB curriculum

1.2.2.5. Private / independent

1.2.2.5.1. Gov't decides whether or not they want to provide funding

1.2.3. 1982 Constitution Act of CDA (Anuik)

1.2.3.1. Recognizes Aboriginal people as being First Nations, Metis and Inuit

1.3. Cultural

1.3.1. General goals of school (Peters)

1.3.1.1. Critical thinkers

1.3.1.2. Ethical decision makers

1.3.1.3. Values of literature, arts and science

1.3.1.4. Cooperation in society

1.3.1.5. Passing down of values and traditions

1.3.1.6. Vocational goals

1.3.2. Existence of hierarchies of social stratification (Kachur)

1.3.2.1. Nature, class, status, race, gender, sexuality, kin, merit-based

1.3.2.2. Top 20% of CDA owns 70% of the country's wealth

1.3.2.2.1. Some chance for social/educational mobility although can be difficult

1.4. Social justice (as part of the hidden curriculum)

1.4.1. Must encourage kids to become critical analysts of contemporary issues and empathetic defenders of human rights (Maclean's)

1.4.2. LGBTQ (Phair)

1.4.2.1. Queer youth (gay/lesbian/trans)

1.4.2.2. 1985: Cdn Charter of Rights and Freedoms condones discrimination

1.4.2.3. What can educators do?

1.4.2.3.1. Be proactive

1.4.2.3.2. Use inclusive language

1.4.2.3.3. Establish safe spaces

1.4.2.3.4. Create Gay-Straight Alliance in school

1.4.2.3.5. Awareness

1.5. Professional Responsibilities as Educators (Schaufer)

1.5.1. Code of professional conduct

1.5.1.1. ATA ~ 40,000 members

1.5.1.2. Very different standards placed on teachers than in other professions

1.5.2. Teaching Profession Act

1.5.2.1. Protection and advocacy

1.5.2.2. Teacher responsibility

1.5.2.3. Maintenance of high standards

1.5.2.4. Judgement by peers

2. Philosophical Perspective

2.1. Educational Theories

2.1.1. Cognitivism (EDU210)

2.1.1.1. Piaget, Brunner

2.1.1.2. Memory systems are active, organized info processors; mind is like a computer

2.1.1.3. Uses scaffolding and schema

2.1.1.4. Prior knowledge is key in learning

2.1.1.5. Uses mnemonic devices, metaphors, symbols, mind maps (LIKE THIS ONE!!!), etc.

2.1.2. Behaviourism (EDU210)

2.1.2.1. Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, Skinner

2.1.2.2. Learning is the expected response to a given environmental stimulus

2.1.2.3. Involves operant conditioning (positive/negative reinforcement)

2.1.2.4. Repetition... practice makes perfect!

2.1.2.5. Involves modelling, shaping, cuing, lectures

2.1.2.6. Teacher-centered

2.1.3. Constructivism (EDU210)

2.1.3.1. Engaged Inquiry (Wilson)

2.1.3.1.1. SOAP (story, object, activity, picture)

2.1.3.1.2. Student centered

2.1.3.1.3. Active listeners

2.1.3.1.4. New skills: cooperation/collaboration, open mind, respect, critical thinkers

2.1.3.1.5. Generates fresh ideas

2.1.3.2. Piaget, Brunner, Montessieur, Johnson

2.1.3.3. Knowledge is constructed from experience; learning is active and a combination of teaching and discovery

2.1.3.4. Teacher as facilitator, project-based learning, perform authentic tasks

2.1.3.5. Student centered

2.1.3.6. Vygotsky's zone of proximal development

2.1.4. Humanism

2.1.4.1. Importance of empathy

2.1.4.2. Need for compassionate teachers

2.2. Education Act 2012 (Smilanich)

2.2.1. Inspiring Education

2.2.1.1. 3 E's: engaged thinkers, ethical citizenship, entrepreneurial spirit

2.2.1.2. What would a transformed education system look like for a new generation of AB students?

2.2.2. AB curriculum is 100% transparent

2.2.3. Goal to develop a centralized, high quality curriculum

2.2.4. Incorporates ideas of Daniel Pink

2.2.4.1. Autonomy

2.2.4.1.1. Critical thinking for yourself

2.2.4.2. Mastery

2.2.4.2.1. It feels good to learn!

2.2.4.3. Purpose

2.2.4.3.1. Why are we learning this and what is its purpose?

2.2.4.4. Overall goal is to move from assessment OF learning, to assessment FOR learning and finally assessment AS learning

2.2.4.5. A Whole New Mind - there are 6 things we MUST understand in the 21st century

2.2.4.5.1. Design

2.2.4.5.2. Story

2.2.4.5.3. Symphony

2.2.4.5.4. Empathy

2.2.4.5.5. Play

2.2.4.5.6. Meaning

3. Historical Perspective

3.1. Egerton Ryerson (Peters)

3.1.1. Advocated for compulsory universal education

3.1.2. In the 18th century laws were approved to encourage the establishment of schools

3.1.3. Before the 1800's schools were primarily for the elite and privileged

3.2. Special Education (lecture)

3.2.1. 1800's = institutionalization

3.2.1.1. Special residential schools for children with severe sensory defects

3.2.2. 1900 - 1950 = segregation

3.2.2.1. Societal pressure to isolate and institutionalize severely disabled children

3.2.2.2. More IQ testing = more mental retardation diagnoses

3.2.3. 1950's - 1960's = categorization

3.2.3.1. Referral - testing - labelling - placement - programming

3.2.4. 1970's = integration

3.2.5. 1980's = mainstreaming

3.2.5.1. Push for education special needs children in the least restrictive environment

3.2.6. 1990's - present = inclusion

3.2.6.1. "Fair isn't always equal"

3.2.6.1.1. Differing zones of proximal development

3.2.6.2. UDL (lecture)

3.2.6.2.1. Providing multiple means of representation (what), action/expression (how), engagement (why)

3.2.6.2.2. How can we off choice to our students?

3.2.6.2.3. Focus shifts from how students are learning to rather what they are learning... multiple paths can lead to the same outcome

3.2.6.2.4. Differentiated instruction for students

3.2.6.2.5. Adapted vs. modified program plans

3.2.6.2.6. Assistive technologies

3.3. Aboriginal Education

3.3.1. Residential Schools (lecture)

3.3.1.1. Gov't policy of aggressive assimilation

3.3.1.2. Students endured physical and emotional abuse

3.3.1.3. Policy to "kill the Indian and save the child" was vigorously pursued

3.3.1.4. Extremely detrimental consequences for Aboriginal people; lost their culture and identity

3.3.1.5. 2008: Harper gov't issued a public apology for abuses suffered

3.3.2. The 60s Scoop (EDU211)

3.3.2.1. Unknown to most Canadians

3.3.2.2. Aboriginals living in poverty but providing otherwise caring homes had their children apprehended

3.3.2.3. Mirrored the forced assimilation policy of residential schools

3.3.2.4. Resulted in loss of identity for adopted children

3.3.3. Current FNMI policy (lecture)

3.3.3.1. FNMI = fastest growing non-immigrant segment of the population in Canada

3.3.3.2. AB education provides additional funding for FNMI students (federal initiative)

3.3.3.3. Many people are starting to come off reserves and move into cities

3.3.3.4. Holistic, lifelong learning model (Anuik)

3.3.3.5. Need to see themselves and their cultures in the curriculum and school community (Anuik)

3.4. Eugenics (Wilson)

3.4.1. eugenicsarchive.ca

3.4.1.1. Living Archives

3.4.2. Social movement from 1865-1945 aimed to improve the "quality" of the human population via selective breeding

3.4.3. Term "eugenics" coined by Francis Galton

3.4.4. Sexual Sterilization Act of AB (1928)

3.4.5. Survivor Leilani Muir sues AB gov't on wrongful sterilization

3.5. Penguin Revolution

3.5.1. April 24, 2006

3.5.2. Students protesting lack of quality, free public education, school bus fares, entrance fees into university...

3.5.3. Largely upper class students fighting for the rights of those in the lower classes

3.5.4. Protests resulted in changes being made to the Chilean education system

4. Public Education, Globalization, and Democracy: Whither Alberta? (Kachur and Harrison)

4.1. Education in General

4.1.1. Inseparable from broader moral, economic and political issues

4.1.2. Education is a fundamental element in the establishment, maintenance and transformation of democratic citizenship not only through what is taught but via process of how things are taught

4.2. Political

4.2.1. AB = first province to attack the notion of equality of opportunity in education

4.2.2. Post WW2 developed the "Welfare State"; by the 1970's the state began to unravel

4.2.2.1. Formed the New Right political coalition between the neo-liberals and social conservatives

4.2.2.2. Neo-liberals argued for: increased parental choice, more links between school and work, enhanced student streaming, emphasis on science/math/tech., greater public choice, measures of school quality, more fiscal austerity

4.2.3. Klein Revolution

4.2.3.1. Illusion of a deficit crisis from 1993-1997

4.2.3.2. Reduced the number of school boards and expanded curriculum options

4.2.3.3. Privatized education in AB in 3 ways

4.2.3.3.1. Increased number of private enrollments

4.2.3.3.2. Entry of business into classrooms

4.2.3.3.3. Transfer of school costs to individuals and families

4.3. Economic

4.4. Social

4.4.1. Too much emphasis and blame is placed on teachers and schools without consideration of social conditions and political agendas

5. Unequal Student Attainments: Class, Gender and Race (Davies and Guppy)

5.1. Structural Functionalist

5.1.1. Believed that schools in modern societies serve as 'great equalizers' and promote meritocracy

5.1.1.1. The need for a meritorious labour force ought to compel schools to be colour-blind and to reward everyone equally according to their efforts and talents

5.1.2. Schools are a prime avenue for upward social mobility

5.1.3. Viewpoint held sway throughout the 1950's and 60's; continues to be popular in the general public

5.2. Neo-Marxists

5.2.1. Contend that schools 'reproduce' social inequalities

5.2.1.1. Predicts virtually no mobility among disadvantaged racial or ethnic groups

5.2.2. Design of mass public schooling ensures that youth who are born disadvantaged remain disadvantaged

5.2.3. Schools reinforce existing inequalities in wider society

5.2.4. John Porter: 'Vertical Mosaic' describes the intersection of class, ethnicity, and inequality; implicates schools as active generators of disparities

5.2.4.1. Vertical Mosaic needs revision because the old British advantage has long since disappeared

5.3. Empirical Research

5.3.1. Contemporary schools may actually succeed in reducing inequality, but fail to come close to totally eliminating it

5.3.2. Affluent children are better positioned to exploit opportunities and therefore fare better in school

5.3.3. While less advantaged youth are attaining greater levels of schooling than before, advantaged youth have easily kept pace

5.3.3.1. Gradients exist within ethnic groups, genders or regions and these gradients represent a causal link between SES and educational attainment

5.3.3.1.1. While many areas of schooling have seen important reversals in gender patterns of attainment, some are still marked by persistent inequalities

5.3.3.1.2. Possible reasons for changes in gender representation in universities...

5.3.3.1.3. Gender patterns of concentration still appear within specialties (ie. has a fractal quality)

5.3.4. Idea that seasonal learning reduces learning gaps along socio-economic lines and therefore schools function as equalizers in terms of measured learning

5.3.5. Primary vs Secondary social mechanisms of educational inequality

5.3.5.1. Primary: social forces that create inequalities in education by directly affecting children's capacity to learn school curricula (ex. class background)

5.3.5.1.1. Family based learning opportunities

5.3.5.2. Secondary: processes that generate inequalities within the range of options afforded by students' performance, and therefore stem from their choices, motivations and expectations

5.3.5.2.1. Orientations to school and cultural mismatches

5.3.5.2.2. Poor youth may lack role models

5.3.5.2.3. Streaming

5.3.5.2.4. Pygmalion in the classroom and the observer bias

5.3.5.2.5. Bourdieu: mismatches between students' cultural background and school content

5.3.5.2.6. Self-fulfilling prophecy

5.3.5.2.7. Conflict theory

5.3.5.2.8. Gender

5.4. Limited Compensation Model

5.4.1. Schools can partly couter-act some inequalities, but legacies of societal disparities will constrain what they can do

5.4.2. Abella Image

5.4.2.1. Groups in CDA are stratified into 2 massive camps: whites and visible minorities

5.4.2.2. Inaccurate due to great variations within the visible minority groups

5.4.2.2.1. Native and African Canadian children are suffering the greatest disadvantages while Asian Canadians are faring quite well

5.4.2.2.2. Legacy of colonialism for Aboriginals is still manifest in schools, while changing immigration policies have created a partial reversal in racial and ethnic attainment trends

6. The School as an Informal System of Socialization (Barakett and Cleghorn)

6.1. Various theories (Smilanich)

6.1.1. Mead's Theory

6.1.1.1. SELF

6.1.1.1.1. "I"

6.1.1.1.2. "ME"

6.1.1.1.3. ME mediates I and you internalize the GENERALIZED OTHER (understand the notion of status quo)

6.1.1.2. Governed more strongly by internal forces than Schutz's theory

6.1.2. Schutz's Theory

6.1.2.1. How we act in INTERSUBJECTIVE REALITY

6.1.2.1.1. Knowledge we accumulate through our experiences

6.1.2.1.2. Common sense knowledge

6.1.2.1.3. Copying

6.1.2.2. Still internally governed but influenced more strongly by external forces than Mead's theory

6.1.3. Freud

6.1.3.1. Psychoanalyst

6.1.3.2. Proposed 3 levels of consciousness

6.1.3.2.1. Id

6.1.3.2.2. Ego

6.1.3.2.3. Superego

6.1.4. Piaget

6.1.4.1. Cognitive theory of socialization

6.1.4.1.1. Moral realism (~amoral)

6.1.4.1.2. Moral autonomy (~immoral)

7. Nourishing the Learning Spirit: Coming to Know and Validating Knowledge: Foundational Insights on Indian Control of Indian Education in Canada (Anuik)

7.1. Assembly of First Nations (AFN) issued a policy statement titles Indian Control of Indian Education

7.1.1. Enabled FNMI individuals to consider "alternatives to residential schools, federally administered day schools, and the public school system"

7.1.2. Mandates a "suitable philosophy of education based on Indian values"

7.1.3. Nourishing the learning spirit is done through coming to know and validating knowledge processes

7.2. Nourishing the learning spirit

7.2.1. Integrating people in heart, mind, soul and body

7.2.2. Spirituality as a way of knowing

7.2.3. Includes identity, self-worth, personal insight, meaning and purpose

7.2.4. Holistic learning based on personal experiences

7.2.4.1. Power of stories, songs and ceremonies

7.2.5. Lifelong; continuous

7.3. Validating knowledge

7.3.1. "I know it because I experienced it"

7.3.2. The "a-ha" moments

7.3.3. Must stop comparing against other students and simply consider "the changes in their lives and their awareness of themselves"

7.3.4. To achieve this for their students, teachers must recognize the history/legacy of colonization and understand the need for Aboriginal people to be reconnected to traditional ways of knowing