Chapters 4&5

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Chapters 4&5 by Mind Map: Chapters 4&5

1. Ch. 5 State terror, gangs and everyday violence

1.1. middle and upper class' never ending talk of crime seems to develop a circle "which fear is both dealt with ad reproduced in which violence is both counteracted and magnified"

1.1.1. although talk about violence is common through all classes, the ways and severity of daily suffering experienced fluctuate across classes, races, genders and locations.

1.2. Gangs

1.2.1. intervene in various family and amorous feuds

1.2.2. mediate with local police

1.2.3. keep other gangs from invading or using their territory as a drug-selling site

1.2.4. residents recognize the importance of having one, regardless of being ambivalent of it

1.2.5. perform functions far beyond the involvement with the trafficking of illegal substances.

1.2.6. for many young men, the offer a place of belonging and identity that other employment options would fail to provide. They achieve a sense of masculinity and ego as they join and receive a weapon which creates pride.

1.3. Zones

1.3.1. Blue Zone A great level of state presence, bureaucracy and a working legal system Green Zone high degree of territorial penetration and lower availability to state. Brown Zone very low or negligible state presence. The state is unable to reinforce power and stability.

1.4. violence

1.4.1. In recent times the killings were done with a reason, as form of justice that both the gangs and police are part of.

1.4.2. Killings of innocent people are common among communities and organization of crime is part of the norm

2. Ch. 4 No time for Childhood

2.1. "Treatment of children by middle and upper class Brazilians is that of a kind. This observation is striking when considered alongside the rituals of childhood among the lower classes"

2.2. Brazil's street children

2.2.1. great in number, as it grows, middle and upper classes begin to view these youths as bandits and have believed the urban death squads to be "cleansing" the streets of the worse of them.

2.2.2. outrageously dangerous living conditions

2.2.3. extremely vulnerable to physical assault, they are often used in serious crimes formed by gangs since they would receive lesser sentences if caught.

2.2.4. make upper class Brazilians uncomfortable about the way they are viewed by international press,

2.2.5. on one hand they are seen as innocent victims of the country's social and financial conditions on the other hand they are seen as part of a growing population of irreversible criminals.

2.3. Nurtured vs. Nurturing Children

2.3.1. Nurtured children are those who are coddled and spoiled from middle and upper class families who do not have to work for any of what they own and live life with little to no responsibilities. Shun any manual labor and never work a low-wage labor, not even as apprentices.

2.3.2. Nurturing children are poor children who take on serious responsibilities, often those that belong to a parent. Starting at a young age these children (well before legal age) must bring in resources to the mother, maintain the household, as well as take care of any younger siblings and extended family. The only time these children are actually treated as such is at a very young age