Biology 016M

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Biology 016M by Mind Map: Biology 016M

1. Exploring Life (Ch.1)

1.1. Forms of life share common properties

1.1.1. Order

1.1.2. Reproduction

1.1.3. Growth and Development

1.1.4. Energy Proccessing

1.1.5. Response to the envioronment

1.1.6. Regualtion

1.1.7. Evolutionary adaptation

1.2. Biosphere (all of the environments on Earth that support life)

1.2.1. Ecosystem: Consists of all the organisms living in a particular area.

1.2.2. Community: An entire array of organisms in an ecosystem.

1.2.3. Population: Includes all the individuals of a particular species living in an area.

1.2.4. Organism: An individual living thing.

1.2.5. Organ System: Consists of several organs that cooperate in a specific function.

1.2.6. Organ: Made up of several different tissues.

1.2.7. Tissues: Each made up of a group of similar cells that perform a specific function.

1.2.8. A Cell: Is a fundamental unit of life.

1.2.9. Organelle: Is a membrane enclosed structure that performs a specific function in a cell.

1.2.10. Molecule: Is a cluster of small chemical units called atoms.

1.3. 3 Domains of life

1.3.1. Bacteria: Are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes.

1.3.2. Archaea: Can live in extreme environments

1.3.3. Eukarya: Cell that have a nucleus and other internal structures called organelles. Eukarya: Which have a nucleus and other internal structures.

1.4. Charles Darwin theor

1.4.1. 1. Individuals in a population vary in their traits, many of which are passed on from parents to offspring. 2. A population can produce far more offspring than the environment can support.

1.5. The Process of Science

1.5.1. Inductive Reasoning: Collecting and analyzing observations can lead to conclusions

1.5.2. Hypothesis: Is a proposed explanation for a set of observations.

1.5.3. Deductive Reasoning: Logic flows from general premises to the specific results we should expect if the premises are true.

1.5.4. Theory: Is a much broader in scope than a hypothesis.Supported by a large and usually growing body of evidence.

1.5.5. Controlled Experiment: Is designed to compare and experimental group with a control group. The experimental and control groups differ only in the ones factor the experiment is designed to test.

2. The Chemical Basis of Life (Ch.2)

2.1. Four elements that make up 96% of living matter

2.1.1. Oxygen

2.1.2. Carbon

2.1.3. Hydrogen

2.1.4. Nitrogen

2.2. Anything that takes up space and has mass

2.2.1. Matter

2.3. Is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical reactions.

2.3.1. Element

2.4. Is a substance consisting two or more different elements in a fixed ratio.

2.4.1. Compound

2.5. Three Components of an Atom

2.5.1. Protons: which have a + charge

2.5.2. Electrons: which have a - charge

2.5.3. Neutrons: Are electrically neutral

2.6. Atomic # and Mass #

2.6.1. Atomic # is the number of protons in an atom

2.6.2. The mass # is the number of Pro and Neutrons in an atom

2.6.3. The # of Neutrons can be determined by subtracting the atomic # from the mass #

2.6.4. An Atomic is neutral in charge, the # of electrons is equal to the # of protons

2.7. Bonds

2.7.1. Covalent: A bond forms when two atoms share electons

2.7.2. Non-polar covalent: A bond forms when two atoms share electons EQUALLY.

2.7.3. Polar Covalent: A bond forms when two atoms share electrons UNEQUALLY.

2.7.4. Ionic: A bond forms when one atom gives or takes an electron from another atom.

2.8. pH scale

2.8.1. Acid: A compound that donates hydrogen ions to solutions. Such a tomato juice, coke cola, battery acid.

2.8.2. Base: A compound that accepts hydrogen ions and removes them from solutions. Such as household bleach and oven cleaner.

3. The Molecules of Cells (Ch.3)

3.1. Four groups of Macromolecules

3.1.1. Carbohydrates Are Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. contains mostly monosaccharides, use it as main source or energy

3.1.2. Proteins Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Polymers of molecules called amino acids. Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. Some are used to form bones and musccles, while others transport substances into our out of the cell.

3.1.3. Lipids Are made up from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Some form when a glycerol molecule combines with fatty acids

3.1.4. Nucleic Acids Contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus. They are polymers assembled from individual monomers called nucleotides. Stored and transmit hereditary information. RNA and DNA

3.2. Functional Groups

3.2.1. Hydroxyl Group: -OH

3.2.2. Carbonyl Group: \/ C=O

3.2.3. Carboxyl Group: -COOH

3.2.4. Amino Group: -NH2 (small 2)

3.2.5. Phosphate Group: -OPO3 2- (small 3, up right small 2-)

3.2.6. Methyl Group: -CH3 (small 3)

3.3. Specialized marcromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells.

3.3.1. Enzymes

3.4. Building blocks are joined together by __________ reactions.

3.4.1. Hydrolysis

3.5. Building blocks are borken up by ______ reactions.

3.5.1. Dehydration

3.6. Building blocks of a large macromolecule is called?

3.6.1. Polymer

3.7. Large Organic molecule made up of building blocks is called?

3.7.1. Monomer

4. A Tour of the Cell (Ch.4)

4.1. Parts of a Cell:

4.1.1. Nucleus:"Mayor of City hall" Nucleus is the brain of the cell and controls all activity within the cell

4.1.2. Ribosomes: "Lumber or brickyard" Carry out the manual labor in the form of protein for the nucleus

4.1.3. Endoplasmic Reticulum: "Highway/Road System Rough ER: A source of proteins Smooth ER: Lacks ribosomes, responsible for lipids synthesis and processes a variety a metabolic process such as drug detoxification

4.1.4. Cell Membrane (animals) and Cell Wall (plants: "City Border" and "City Wall" Cell Membrane: Ability to regulate entrance and exit of substances, maintaining internal balance Cell Wall: Much stronger than cell membrane. Protects cell from exploding in extremely diluted solutions.

4.1.5. Cytoskeleton "Steel Girders": Makes up the internal framework. Give each cell its distinctive shape and high level organization. Microfilaments: Also called Actin filaments. Soild rock composed mainly of globular proteins. Arranged in a twisted double chain. Intermediate Filament: Serve mainly to reinforce cell shapes and to another certain organelles. Microtuble: Are straight hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins.

4.1.6. Cytoplasm "Lawns and Parks": Is a semi-fluid substance found inside the cell. It encases, cushions and protects the internal organelles.

4.1.7. Golgi Apparatus "Post Office": Is used for shipping those goods created by the ER and ribosomes to the rest of the cell.

4.1.8. Chloroplasts "Solar Energy Plant": Is ONLY found in the plant cells. They use sunlight to create energy for they city.

4.1.9. Mitochondria "Energy Plant": Are found BOTH plant and animals cells, its also the site of the cellular respiration. ATP is created which is used for the energy by the cell.

4.1.10. Lysosomes "Waste/Recycling": Are digestive sacs that can break down macromolecules in the cell using the process of hydrolysis.

4.1.11. Vacuoles and Vesicles "Warehouse, Water Tower" Have variety of functions as containment units for anything in excess in a city.

5. How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy (Ch.6)

5.1. LEO

5.1.1. LOST of electrons OXIDATION

5.2. GER

5.2.1. GAIN of electrons REDUCTION

5.3. Overall goal of Cellular Respiration

5.3.1. To make ATP

5.4. Chemical equation for cellular respiration

5.4.1. O2 is REDUCED to H2O

5.4.2. C6H12O6 is OXIDIZED to CO2

5.5. The phosphate group added to ADP comes from an organic

5.5.1. Substrate-level phosphorylation

5.6. The phosphate group added to ADP comes from INorganic phospahte

5.6.1. Oxidative Phophorylation

5.7. Stages of Cellular Respiration

5.7.1. 1.Glycolysis (cytoplasm) Inputs: C6H1206, 2 ATP, NAD+ Outputs: 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvate 1B. Pyruvate processing

5.7.2. 2.Citric Acid Cycle (mitochondria) Inputs: Acetyl Coenzyme Outouts: CO2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH

5.7.3. 3.Oxidative Phosphorylation ( inner mitochondrial) Inputs: Oxygen Outputs: 28 ATP, 8 NADH, 4 FADH

6. The Working Cell (Ch.5)

6.1. Energy that is stored- such as the water in a dam.

6.1.1. Potential

6.2. Energy in motion- such as when that dam is released.

6.2.1. Kinetic

6.3. Laws Thermodynamics

6.3.1. Energy cannot be created or destroyed ONLY transferred or transformed.

6.3.2. Disorder is always increasing in the universe. This disorder is called Entropy.

6.4. Reactions occur when energy is RELEASED in chemical transformations

6.4.1. Exergonic Catabolism Metabolism: is the sum of all the chemical reactions in a cell

6.5. Reactions occur when energy is NEEDED for work to be done.

6.5.1. ENdergonic Anabolism

6.6. The tendency for particles of any kinds to spread out evenly in an available space

6.6.1. Duffusion

6.7. When molecules move from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOWER concentration

6.7.1. Concentration Gradient

6.8. When a molecules diffuse across its membrane, such movement across a membrane is called?

6.8.1. Passive Transport VS. Active Transport

6.9. The liquid that solute is dissolved in

6.9.1. Solvent VS. Solutes

7. Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food (Ch.7)

7.1. Autotrophs: They make their own food. They can sustain themselves without consuming organic molecules.

7.1.1. VS. Hetertrophs: Consumes other plants, animals, or decompose organic material

7.2. Overall Goal of Photosynthesis and the Chemical equation

7.2.1. To convert CO2 and H2O to their own organic molecules, which release O2 as a by product

7.2.2. Light, carbon dioxide,water 6CO2+ 6H2O ----> C6H12O+ 6O2

7.2.3. 6CO2 is REDUCED to 6CO2+H12O6+O2

7.2.4. Water is OXIDIZED o oxygen

7.3. Stages of Photosnhesis

7.3.1. Light-Dependent Reaction: To convert light energ to poential energy stored in ATP. Another goal is o take the electrons from water and place on them on a elecron carrier NADPH Inputs: H2O, light energy Outputs: O2, ATP, NADPH Location: Thylakoid Membrane

7.3.2. Calvin Cycle: To reduce CO2 to glucose. NADPH provides the electrons needed to make glucose. ATP provides the energy needed o make glucose. The enzyme involved in he fist step of the Calvin Cycle is the Rubisco. The most abundant enzyme on earth. Inputs: CO2, ATP, NADPH Outputs: G3P (Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate) Location: Stroma

7.4. Photosystems

7.4.1. PSII Electrons from P680 are transferred to an electron acceptor in the reaction center. The Electrons that move in the reaction center are quickly replaced by electrons that come from the splitting of H2O. As the electron move from the electron acceptor, they cool off and lose energy. This energy is used to pump H+ into he space of the hylakoid. This creates concentration gradient. The only way that the H+ diffuse back to the stoma is the chemisosis.ATP si produced will be used in the Calvin Cycle to make glucose PSI The electrons now end up in PSI, sunlight hits the reaction center. The electrons then lose energy. The electrons will end up being in NADPH. The electrons from water will in NADPH at he end of light dependent reactions

8. The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance (Ch.8)

8.1. Chromatin

8.1.1. Unpack aged DNA associated with proteins present during interphase

8.2. Chromosomes

8.2.1. Highly condensed DNA visible during metaphase

8.3. Chromatid

8.3.1. One identical DNA copy produced by reolication

8.4. Centriole

8.4.1. Small cylindrical cell organelle

8.5. Cenrosome

8.5.1. Organizes microtubles to form the spindle during mitosis

8.6. Centromere

8.6.1. Site of mitotic spindle attachment during mitosis

8.7. Which produces Diploid cells?

8.7.1. Mitosis What produces Haploid Cells? Meiosis

8.8. Stages of Mitosis (IPPMAT)

8.8.1. Interphase: Cell grows and synthesizes new molecules and oraganelles

8.8.2. Prophase: The chomosomes condense and the nuclear envelope starts to disappear

8.8.3. Prometaphase: The chromosomes attach to he spindle fibers and the nucleus disappearscompletely

8.8.4. Metaphase: The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

8.8.5. Anaphase: The sister chromatids start to pull apart from each other

8.8.6. Telephase: The two sets of chromosomes a opposite ends of the cell and he nuclear envelope re-forms

8.9. Nondisjunction

8.9.1. Is the failure of chromosomes/chromatids to separate normally during meiosis. Fertilization after nondisjunction yields zygotes with alerted numbers of chromosomes

8.10. Chromosomal Rearrangements: Genetic disorders and cancer can be caused

8.10.1. Deletion Loss of a chromosome segment

8.10.2. Duplication the repeat of a chromosomes

8.10.3. Inversion the attachment of a segment to a nonhomologous chromosomes that can be reciprocal

8.11. Cell Cycle Control System: is a cycling of he molecules in he cell hat riggers and coordinates key events in he cell cycle

8.11.1. G1- the MOST imporant, they know if a cell can go onto he next stages S G2 M G0- this is only when a cell switch o a permanently nondiving state. The cell will ge sent back

8.12. Genetic variability arise during cell division in crossing over. its an exchange o corresponding segments between non sister chromaids of he homologous chromosomes

8.13. Asexual Reproduction

8.13.1. Create genetically identical off springs by a single parent VS Sexual Reproduction

9. Patterns of Ineritance (Ch.9)

9.1. Hybrids

9.1.1. Cross The offspring of two different varieties Cross fertilization itself is referred to as a hybridization or simply a genetic cross

9.1.2. The F's F1- Thei hybrid offspring F2- when F1 self fertilize or fertilize each other, their offspring are

9.2. Punnett Square: Shows possible combinaions

9.2.1. Monohybrid Cross: The parent plan differ in only one character

9.2.2. Dihybrid Cross: A mating o parental varieties diffing in two characters

9.3. Alleles

9.3.1. Alternative versions of a gene

9.4. Homozyous

9.4.1. Two identical alleles for a gene (BB or bb)

9.5. Heterozygous

9.5.1. Have two different alleles for a gene (Bb)

9.6. Dominant

9.6.1. If he two alleles of an inherited pair differ, than one determines the organism appearance VS Recessive

9.7. Law of Segregation

9.7.1. A sperm or egg carries only one allele for each inherited character because allele pairs separate from each other during the production of gametes

9.8. Phenoype

9.8.1. Physical Traits VS Genotype

9.9. Pleiotropy

9.9.1. One gene influences multiple characters. The control of more than one pheotypic characteristic by a single gene

9.10. Pedigree

9.10.1. A family genetic tree representing he occurrence of heritable traits in parents and offspring across a number of generations. Also to can used to determine genotype of mating ha have already occurred

9.11. Sex Chromosomes

9.11.1. Many animals including fruit flies have a pair. The designated X or Y, that determine an individuals sex

10. Molecular Biology of the Gene (Ch.10)

10.1. Double Helix

10.1.1. The diameter of the helix suggested that i was made up of two polynucleotide stands

10.2. DNA: DeoxyriboNucleic Acid

10.2.1. The Four Nucleoides found are: Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Adenine (A) Guanine (G)

10.3. RNA: RiboNucleic Acid

10.3.1. Implies, its sugar is ribose rather than deoxyribose

10.3.2. Instead of a Thymine, RNA has a nitrogenous base called Uracil (U)

10.4. DNA Replication

10.4.1. Starts in the Origin of Replication

10.4.2. The enzyme, helicase is responsible for pulling the two strands apart

10.4.3. The two strands want to stick back together (they were attached by hydrogen bonds) so proteins called single strand DNA binding come in and act as doorstops so they remain separated

10.4.4. This place where he two strands are pulled apart is Y which is called the replication fork

10.5. The Synthesis of the DNA

10.5.1. After the two parent strands are pulled apart, there are two new daughter stands being made. The leading strand is made continuously because the parent strand it is coming off of is in the 3' to 5' direction. A short piece of RNA called a primer sticks to he beginning of the parent strand in order to start the new growing strand. The enzyme polymerse is then responsible for bringing in he new nucleotides to the growing 3' end. In he lagging strand, The DNA is made in pieces, each primed separately. This is because he replication fork is like a zipper and unzipped in the opposite direction of DNA synthesis.

10.6. Repairing Mistakes and Damage

10.6.1. DNA polymerase acts a proofreader so that if the wrong base is added in it, immediately is changed out to the right one.

10.6.2. If there are still error after the DNA is synthesized, there is another set of enzymes that correct it. Its called a mismatch repair.

11. Are Single-ring structures called pyrimidines

12. Are larger, double-ring structures called purines

13. How Genes are Controlled (Ch.11)

13.1. Gene regulation: is the turing on and off button of genes

13.2. Gene expression: is the overall process of the information flow from the genes to proteins

13.3. Promoter

13.3.1. A specific nucleotide sequences in DNA located near the start of a gene that is the binding site for RNA polymerase and the place where transcription begins.

13.4. Repressor

13.4.1. A protein that blocks the transcription of a gene or operon

13.5. Activator

13.5.1. A protein that switches on a gene or group of genes

13.6. Transcription Factor

13.6.1. In the eukaryoric cell, a protein that functions in initiating or regulating transcription. Transcription factors bind to DNA or to other proteins that bind to DNA.

13.7. Enhancer

13.7.1. A eukaryotic DNA sequence that helps stimulate the transcription of a gene at some distance from it. An enhancer functions b means of transcription by means of a transcription factor called an activator which binds to it and then to the rest of the transcription apparatus.

13.8. Silencer

13.8.1. A euaryortic DNA sequence that functions to inhibit the start of gene transcription may act analogously to an enhancer by binding a repressor.

13.9. Two types of repressor-controlled operons

13.9.1. Lac-operon Active when alone inactive when bound to lactose

13.9.2. Trp bacterial operon inactive when alone active when bound ammino acid

13.10. DNA packing: eukaryotic chromosomes undergo multiple levels of folding and coiling

13.11. Nucleosomes are formed when DNA wrapped around histone protiens

13.12. DNA packing can prevent gene expression by preventing RNA polymersase and other transcription proteins from contacting the DNA

14. DNA Technology and Genomics(Ch12.)

14.1. Recombinant DNA: is formed when scientist combine nucleotide sequences from two different sources often different species, to form a single DNA molecule

14.2. Steps of Cloning

14.2.1. 1. A plasmind is isolated Plasminds: are small, circular DNA ,molecules that replicate separately from the much larger bacterial chromosome.

14.2.2. 2. The cell's DNA is isolated

14.2.3. 3. The plasmid is cut with an enzyme

14.2.4. 4. The cell's DNA is cut with the same enzyme

14.2.5. 5. The targeted fragment and plasmid DNA are combined

14.2.6. 6. DNA ligase is added which joins the two DNA molecules

14.2.7. 7. The recombinant plasmid is taken up by a bacterium through transformation

14.2.8. 8. The bacterium reproduces

14.2.9. 9. Harvested protein may be used directly

14.3. Gene therapy: aims to treat a disease by supplying a functional allel alteration of afflicted individuals genes and attempt to treat diseases

14.4. PCR: Polumerase Chain Reaction is a method of amplifying a specific segments of a DNA molecule. PCR relies upon a pair of primers that are short, chemcially synthesized; single strand of DNA and three step cycle that double the amount of DNA