Second Partial

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Second Partial by Mind Map: Second Partial

1. UNIT. 17 Describing Statistics


1.1.1. Line Chart Upward Trend Steady increase Slight Fluctuations Reached a peak Increase Signs of recovery Downward Trend Fall Dipped slightly Fell Sharply Declined Decrease

1.1.2. Pie Chart & Bar Chart Formed Made up Came to Constituted

1.1.3. steps to describe a graph: 1.Identify the type of graph 2. Describe the information is represent in the graphic. 3. Remember in bar and pay chart I need to describe the graph of highest to lowest percentage.


1.2.1. Adjectives & Adverbs Adjectives: describe a noun / Adverd: Modifies the verb (when, where, how, in what manner). Trends can be described using VERB+ADVERB. Example: The share price ROSE DRAMATICALLY . I can express the same idea using ADJECTIVE + NOUN. Example: There was A DRAMATIC RISE in the share price. NOTE: Spelling rules about turning adjectives into adverbs. Most adjectives add LY to form the adverb. e.g Sharp - Sharply Adjectives ending in CONSONANT + Y change to I before adding LY. e.g Happy - Happily Adjectives ending in IC add ALLY. e.g. Political - Politically Adjectives ending in L add another L before LY. e.g. Beautiful - Beautifully Adjectives ending in BLE add BLY. e.g. Terrible - Terribly.

2. UNIT 18. Company Finances


2.1.1. FINANCIAL TERMS Costs of a company EXPENDITURE: The total amount of money that an organisation spends on something. TO OVERSPEND: To spend more than you originally planned in your budget. OVERHEADS: The costs of running the company e.g. rent, electricity, water billis, etc. Profits of a company TO BREAK EVEN: To earn enough money to pay for the costs of running the company but no more (no profit is made) OPERATING PROFIT: The profit which comes from a company's usual activities of providing goods or services. REVENUE: The money that a company earns from its sales. GROSS PROFIT: How much a company earns before certain costs and taxes are deducted. NET PROFIT: How much a company earns after all the costs and taxes are deducted. Financial situation of a company TO GO BANKRUPT: To legally stop doing business and close a company because of financial losses . Persons involved in a company finances DEBTOR: A person or organisation that owes money to the company. CREDITOR: A person or organisation that the company owes money to.

2.1.2. FINANCIAL REPORT SUBSIDIARY: A company which is owned, or more that 50% owned, by another company. TAKEOVER: The buying of one company by another company. ACQUISITION: The buying of one company by another company. CASHFLOW: Payments coming into and going out of a business RETURN ON SALES: The percentage that is earned by selling the product. DEFICIT: An amount of money that is owed.


2.2.1. REFERENCE WORDS These are words we use instead of the names of people, things, or ideas already mentioned in the text. EXAMPLE



3.1.1. Place of finance STOCK EXCHANGE: A place where shares are bought and sold. e.g. The most famous stock exchange is located in New York.

3.1.2. Financial person BROKER: A person who can buy and sell shares in a company for you. The broker has to negotiate to buy cheap shares for others companies. SHAREHOLDER: Someone who owns part of a company. The new shareholder of Apple is Bill Gates.

3.1.3. Financial division of a company SHARES: The parts in which a company is divided so investors can buy them Coca Cola Company put on sales shares to increase new shareholders. DIVIDEND: Part of a company's profits which is paid to the people who have bought shares in it. With the profits for this month we going to have a good dividend.

3.1.4. Finances of a company CAPITAL: Money which can be invested in a business to make profits The capital increse 10% now we can buy a new machinery. STOCK: A certain number of shares Company stock will be sold by the broker in the New York Stock exchange.

3.1.5. Financial Terms Commodity e.g. The commodity for the company have risen in the market. Stake e.g. Carlos Slim has 60% stake in the finances of Mexico. Floated e.g. Last year Facebook started floated on the New York stock exchange. Flotation e.g. The company flotation was excellent now we can sell the shares in the stock exchange. Bonds e.g. The government bonds rose yesterday after a fall in USA shares. Bull market Facebook has shares in bull market. Equities The company equities increase with the sell of our new commodities. Dividend yield The company shares are attractive for their high dividend yield of 6.3%.

4. UNIT 20. Starting up


4.1.1. Mortgage To start my new business I have to mortgage my house to the bank.

4.1.2. Provide funding/ capital My partnership provide funding to start the shoes company.

4.1.3. Raise capital With the loan bank I can raise capital for the store.

4.1.4. Secure a loan As a secured loan I put my car.

4.1.5. Business angel Dragons Den are business angel, because they invest in new projects.

4.1.6. Time and Money Invest I invest time in my new house project. Waste My sister wasted money in her company. Spend I spend a great time with my family. Save I have to save time for this week.

4.1.7. Prepositional Phrases Spend on I have to spend time on design new models for the project. Waste on I waste money on the new company. Invest in I´m going to invest in cars.

4.1.8. Phrases Flood with Mexico market has been flooded with commodities imported from China. Pour down We need to pour down all the money in this company. Pump into Carlos Slim has pumped a lot of money into his companies. Tap into USA has tapped into the economy of Mexico for the last decade.


4.2.1. Which/ Who/That/Where Clauses WHO/ THAT People THAT / WHICH Things WHERE Places WHOSE Possesives WHEN Time