Memory

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Memory by Mind Map: Memory

1. encoding - process of getting information into the brain

1.1. acoustic encoding - Encoding of the sound of something

1.1.1. automative processing

1.1.2. effortful processing

1.2. visual encoding - encoding of images

1.2.1. automative processing

1.2.2. effortful processing

1.3. semantic encoding - encoding of meaning (processing something through meaning is a lot more efficient than visual or acoustic encoding)

1.3.1. automative processing

1.3.2. effortful processing

1.4. Effortful processing - Encoding that requires conscious effort and attention

1.5. Automative processing - unconscious processing of things

1.5.1. - space: location of materials and objects

1.5.2. time: sequence of events per day. (keeping track of time, and when things happen)

1.5.3. frequency: how many times something happens

1.5.4. well learned info: if you see something you are familiar with, you automatically comprehend it. (for example, meanings of words. You know the word “cow.” If you see the word “cow” on an advertisement, you don’t have to effortfully process it. You already know

1.5.5. parallel processing - Processing many things at once that is automatic

1.6. positive transfer - Old information that has been retained can assist in learning new things. (For example, if someone knew how to ice skate, those skills will help in learning how to rollerblade)

2. storage - retaining info that you have encoded

2.1. repression - banishing uncomfortable thoughts to reduce anxiety

2.2. sensory memory - immediate, brief recording of information in memory system

2.2.1. iconic memory - A very short photographic memory (usually half a second)

2.2.2. echoic memory - When we remember what we hear for a few seconds

2.3. Ways of retaining information

2.3.1. self reference effect - information is retained easier if it relates to you in some personal way.

2.4. relearning - amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

2.5. Parts of brain involved in storage

2.5.1. hippocampus - Part of the brain that routes and reconstructs explicit memories

2.5.2. cerebellum - The part of the brain that stores implicit memories

2.6. repression - banishing uncomfortable thoughts to reduce anxiety

2.7. Types of memory stored

2.7.1. implicit memory - Learning how to do something (such as riding a bike or tying a shoe)

2.7.2. explicit memory - Memory of facts or experiences that you declare

3. Recall - retrieval of stuff in your memory (ex: memorizing frqs)

3.1. hippocampus - Part of the brain that routes and reconstructs explicit memories

3.2. Incorrect or forgotten information

3.2.1. proactive interference - Something you learned earlier disrupts your retrieval of information later

3.2.2. retroactive interference - New information makes it harder to recall something learned earlier

3.2.3. misinformation effect - when you think back to your memories, a lot of misinformation and incorrect info is unconsciously integrated. This is why eye witness accounts are extremely unreliable.

3.2.4. amnesia - When we forget the source of a memory we retained. This could lead to false memories

3.2.4.1. anterograde amnesia - when, after an event or incident, someone cannot remember anything. (Can be temporary or permanent)

3.2.4.2. retrograde amnesia - After a certain event or incident, memories prior to the event cannot be recalled. (Information can still be encoded and retained after the incident)

3.2.5. serial position effect - The tendency to recall the first and last items in a list

3.2.6. ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve - retention rapidly drops after memorizing something, and then stabilizes afterwards. (Aka retention curve)

3.3. deja vu - the eerie feeling of experiencing something again (happens because there are similar retrieval cues in that situation)

3.4. Things to help recall information

3.4.1. retrieval cues - The act of remembering not only a subject, but also the environment around it to help remember better. (If you remember hanging out with a best friend, but there is a baby in the background, a baby crying would be a retrieval cue)

3.4.2. spacing effect - when rehearsal is distributed over time, rather than crammed in a day

3.4.3. long term potentiation - The strengthening of neural firing, which helps remember. This happens mostly when you sleep

3.4.4. state dependant memory - experience memories in a certain state of mind will be easily retrieved when you return to that state of mind. (If you remember something or experience something while drunk, next time you’re drunk, you’ll remember it easier)

3.4.5. mnemonic - Memory aids (ex: the peg word system)

3.5. Ways of recalling

3.5.1. recognition - when someone recognizes or identifies items previously learned

4. 3 stage processing model of memory - Encoding, Storage and Retrieval