Learning design and technology

Chao Ma
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Learning design and technology by Mind Map: Learning design and technology

1. Session 1

1.1. Learning Theory

1.1.1. Behavioral A passive process Behaviorism is an orientation to learning emphasizing methodically time-controlled events and constructed environmental conditions intended to bring about particular behavioral responses. Merriam and Caffarella (1999, p. 251) Three assumptions References: Merriam, S. B. & Caffarella, R. S. (1999). Learning in Adulthood: A Guide. (2nd Edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Strength Work more efficiently if they have clearly goals. Weakness No incentive then no performance

1.1.2. Cognitivism The learning process as an internal and active mental process, which develops within a learner, increased mental capacity and skills in order to learn better. One assumption Strengths 1. Learning is relevant. 2. Objectives specify clear, measurable terms. Weakness finite, pre-determined goals.

1.1.3. Constructivism Constructing ones own knowledge through past experiences and group collaboration Strengths Rossner-Merrill, Parker, Mamchur and Chu’s (1998, p. 286-287) Weakness Evaluating learning.

1.2. Instructional Design

1.2.1. Define: Instructional design is the systematic process of translating general principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials and activities

1.2.2. Role Identify problem Determine the goals and objectives Define the needs of learners Develop strategies Assess learning outcomes Evaluate learning process More details: http://www.biggerplate.com/mindmaps/C9IHLHJG/gagne-s-9-events-of-instruction

1.2.3. Benefits of instructional design 1. Increased output, ROI 2. Worker loyalty 3. Activity-oriented, project-based, student-centered instruction 4. Promotion of active learning 5. Well-designed learning materials or events

1.3. Instructional Theory

1.3.1. 1. Elaboration theory teach more complexity step by step

1.3.2. 2. Conversation Theory Learning occurs through conversations about a subject matter which serve to make knowledge explicit

1.3.3. 3. Situated Learning

1.3.4. 4. Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction 1. Gain attention Activation of learners 2. Inform learners of objectives Creation of level of expectation for learning 3. Stimulate recall of prior learning Retrieval and activation of short-term memory 4. Present Stimuli Selection of perception of content 5. Guiding learning Enhancement for storage long-term memory through semantic encoding 6. Elicit performance (practice) Enhancement of encoding and verification 7. Provide feedback Reinforcement and assessment of correct performance 8. Assess performance Retrieval and reinforcement of content as final evaluation 9. Enhance retention and transfer skills Retrieval and generalization of learned skill to new situation

1.3.5. 5. Bloom’s Taxonomy 1. Remember 2. Understand 3. Apply 4. Analyze 5. Evaluate 6. Create

1.3.6. A major contributor Robert Gagné in 1960s Acquisition of knowledge is facilitated by the hierarchical sequencing of content from elemental subordinate information to more complex skills (Gagné, 1962).

2. Session 2


2.1.1. 1. Analyze learners

2.1.2. 2. State objectives

2.1.3. 3. Select methods, media and materials

2.1.4. 4. Utilize media and materials

2.1.5. 5. Require learner participation

2.1.6. 6. Evaluate and revise

2.2. ADDIE

2.2.1. 1. Analysis Define the problems Example: Who is the audience? What are audience characteristics? Identify existing knowledge 1. Experience 2. Communication 3. Survey 4. Observation 5. Questionnaire 6. Feedback 7. Focus group Template Steps Project management (Gantt Chart)

2.2.2. 2. Design •Audiences •Objectives •Task Analysis •Strategy •Prototypes Requirement: objectives, supplemental materials, learning outcomes and theories. Design for presenting Multimedia learning Situated learning Multiple representation Presentations for subject matter Design for learning

2.2.3. 3. Development • Outline Content • Select media • Select technology • Select delivery • Develop materials eg. Checklists, Web page, Learning guides

2.2.4. 4. Implementation • Delivery • Experiment • Integration Trial run of the materials with feedback from learner/s Alpha-testing Beta-testing Training procedure developed

2.2.5. 5. Evaluation • Evaluation Plan • Testing • Reviews Formative evaluation – ongoing Summative evaluation - final

2.3. Dick and Carey System Approach

2.3.1. Dick and Carey System Approach

2.3.2. 1. Identify instructional goals 2. Conduct instructional analysis 3. Analyze audiences 4. Write performance objectives 5. Develop assessment instruments 6. Develop instructional strategy 7. Develop and select instruction materials 8. Design and conduct formative evaluation of instruction 9. Revise instruction 10. Design and conduct summative evaluation

2.4. Waterfall (couple of different types)

2.4.1. Waterfall Model (Traditional) Waterfall Model (Modified)

2.5. Kemp design model

2.5.1. Example Details: http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Kemp_design_model, http://www.instructionaldesigncentral.com/htm/IDC_instructionaldesignmodels.htm

3. Session 3

3.1. Review

3.1.1. Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy

3.1.2. Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction

3.1.3. Learning Theory

3.2. Design stage

3.2.1. Steps 1. Learning objectives (outcomes) 2. Sequence of learning activities 3. Format of the learning materials 4. Selection of method and tactics 5. Competency assessments 6. Selection of elearning tools

3.2.2. Focus on Orgnizational content How will it be presented to learners delivery format learning activities learning objectives Bloom’s Taxonomy learning outcomes

3.2.3. Assessment •Feedback (could be oral) •Checklist •Ranking scales •Responses •Yes-No question •Multiple-choice question •Multiple choices •Open-ended question •Essay

3.2.4. Flowchat Example Some useful technology

4. Session 4

4.1. Learning design and technology

4.2. Teaching and Learning with IT

4.3. Useful tools for learning design

4.3.1. 1. Gantt Chart •a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. •Can be created by Ms project and excel Example

4.3.2. 2. Storyboarding It is to gain an early reaction from the users on the concepts proposed for the application. Advantages: 1. Cost effective 2. Communication with client provides an early review 3. Reduces the time spent on undirected discussion 4. Easy to create and easy to modify Types of Storyboards 1. Passive storyboards 2. Active storyboards 3. Interactive storyboards

4.3.3. 3. Second life Second Life is a 3D world where everyone you see is a real person and every place you visit is built by people just like you. Example

4.3.4. 4. Scratch Function: Scratch helps young people learn to think creatively, reason systematically, and work collaboratively — essential skills for life in the 21st century. Example

4.3.5. 5. Mindmeister Function: MindMeister is a tool that allows to collaboratively create mind maps and share them online. It can be used for real-time collaboration and brainstorming sessions. Users can create, manage and share mind maps online and access them anytime, from anywhere. Example

5. Session 5

5.1. Storyboard practice

5.2. Prototypes

5.2.1. Rapid Prototyping May Be Done 1. to test out a user interface; 2. to test the database structure and flow of information in a training system; 3. to test the effectiveness and appeal of a particular instructional strategy; 4. to develop a model case or practice exercise that can serve as a template for others; Example

5.3. Multimedia learning

5.3.1. Cognitive load A theory that focuses the load on working memory during instruction. 1. Intrinsic cognitive load 2. Extraneous cognitive load 3. Germane cognitive load

6. Session 6

6.1. E-learning

6.1.1. E-learning refers to the use of electronic media and information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. Technology 1. Blogging 2. Webcams 3. Video 4. Wiki 5. Whiteboards

6.2. Blended mode

6.2.1. It combines two things: teachers’ talent and technology tools. More detail resource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blended_learning

6.2.2. Advantages 1. Improved school efficiency 2. help each student master the content and skills they need 3. allow teachers to get the most out of their planning and instructional time 4. streamline operations with costs similar to – or less than – traditional schooling.

6.3. Interactive and collaborative applications

7. Session 8

7.1. Design

7.1.1. Focus 1. Analysis 2. Interactive and collaborative 3. Presentation 4. Feedback

7.2. Web 2.0

7.2.1. Advantages User control of information New forms of expression Rich user experiences

7.2.2. Resource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0

7.2.3. Example Wikipedia Resource: http://www.wikipedia.org YouTube Resource: www.youtube.com Slideshare Resource: www.slideshare.net

8. Session 7

8.1. M-learning

8.1.1. with the use of mobile devices, learners can learn anywhere and at any time. Details: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M-learning

8.1.2. Technologies 1. handheld computers 2. MP3 players 3. notebooks 4. mobile phones 5. tablets

8.1.3. Focus: the mobility of the learner, interacting with portable technologies, and learning that reflects a focus on how society and its institutions can accommodate and support an increasingly mobile population.