Articles Developing Educational Aspects

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Articles Developing Educational Aspects by Mind Map: Articles Developing Educational Aspects

1. Socialization of the School as an Informal System (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2007)

1.1. Sociological - Functionalist, Symbolic Interaction, and Conflict Theory. How the education system prepares students to fit into mainstream society.

1.1.1. Socialization (complex, life-long learning process)

1.1.1.1. Agents of Socialization

1.1.1.1.1. Family

1.1.1.1.2. Schooling system

1.1.1.1.3. Peer groups

1.1.1.1.4. Media

1.1.1.2. Two levels of Socialization

1.1.1.2.1. Primary Socialization

1.1.1.2.2. Secondary Socialization

1.1.1.3. Process of Socialization

1.1.1.3.1. Internalization

1.1.1.4. Moral & Political socialization

1.1.1.4.1. Emile Durkeim (1961)

1.1.1.4.2. Moral Socialization

1.1.1.4.3. Political Socialization

1.1.2. Fulfill social roles of students and teachers

1.1.2.1. Reflect different social class

1.1.2.2. ethnicity

1.1.2.3. race

1.1.2.4. gender

1.1.2.5. other constant changes within society

1.1.3. Social Reality

1.1.3.1. objective

1.1.3.1.1. external to & independent of the individual

1.1.3.2. socialized into culture specific group

1.1.3.2.1. but shared system

1.1.4. Peer Group & Pop Culture

1.1.4.1. informal school process

1.1.4.1.1. affects attitude, belief, behaviour

1.1.4.2. influence

1.1.4.2.1. student subculture

1.1.4.3. separation

1.1.4.3.1. of student and adult world

1.1.4.3.2. of gender norms between students

1.1.4.4. Pop Culture

1.1.4.4.1. Creates distance from teacher & student

1.1.4.4.2. Student & teacher appropriate pop culture into their own educational experience

1.1.4.5. Giroux and Simon (1989)

1.1.4.5.1. Pop culture everyday social life

1.2. Philosophical - norms/values/attitudes should be cultivated, why these are important, how people learn, and pedagogical methods.

1.2.1. Role of school

1.2.1.1. How people learn

1.2.1.1.1. Moral socialization

1.2.1.1.2. Political socialization

1.2.2. Theories

1.2.2.1. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

1.2.2.1.1. Biological factors explain development of people

1.2.2.1.2. mind is irrational & subconscious

1.2.2.2. Piget

1.2.2.2.1. Cognitive perspective

1.2.2.2.2. Human behaviour collaboration of biological & environmental factors

1.2.2.2.3. Development of moral thought

1.2.2.3. Contrast theory of Freud & Piget's theories

1.2.2.3.1. Social Learning Theory

1.2.2.4. Mead (1934)

1.2.2.4.1. symbolic interaction

1.2.2.4.2. development of self

1.2.2.4.3. role of generalized other

1.2.2.5. Cooley (1956)

1.2.2.5.1. "The Looking Glass Self"

1.2.2.6. Shutz's Theory

1.2.2.6.1. uncover hidden facts of interaction process

1.2.2.6.2. intersubjectivity

1.2.3. Phenomenologists & Interpretive sociologists (Shutz, 1973)

1.2.3.1. concerned with knowledge

1.2.3.2. assumption that individuals need to make sense of & assign meaning to the world

1.2.4. Teacher expectation

1.2.4.1. pedagogical method

1.2.4.1.1. selected ideals, values, skills & kinds of knowledge

1.2.4.1.2. interaction patterns in school setting

1.2.4.1.3. internalized

1.2.4.1.4. tracking

1.2.4.2. Hargreaves et al. (1975)

1.2.4.2.1. teachers develop typification of pupils

1.2.4.2.2. constructs of student

1.2.4.3. Apple (1979)

1.2.4.3.1. differentiation of students

1.2.4.3.2. occupational division of labour

1.2.5. "Taken-For-Granted Perspective"

1.2.5.1. dominates education

1.2.5.2. participate in determining students educational achievement

1.2.5.3. help determine student's future position in social structure

1.2.6. Hidden Curriculum

1.2.6.1. Tacit teaching of norms, values, & dispositions

1.2.6.1.1. participation in social experience in routine school activities

1.2.6.2. Jackson (1968) & Dreeben (1968)

1.2.6.2.1. hidden curriculum part of regular informal school process

1.2.6.3. Apple & Smith (1991)

1.2.6.3.1. Culture

1.2.6.3.2. teachers must allow conditions for students to create & change meanings & values

1.2.7. Teacher Education

1.2.7.1. Tom (1987, 1995) and Liston & Zeichner (1987)

1.2.7.1.1. Ideological discourses is dominant influence within teacher education programs

1.2.7.2. Teacher role

1.2.7.2.1. transforms knowledge in noncritical manner

1.2.7.2.2. education reformers suggest to consider "Taken-For-Granted" practices

1.2.7.3. Critical & Formal theory & pedagogy

1.2.7.3.1. contribute and teach method courses

1.2.7.3.2. easily foster attitude toward teaching, learning, knowledge, formal & hidden curricula

1.2.7.4. Aronowitz & Giroux (1985)

1.2.7.4.1. democratic society view

1.2.7.5. Reflect & challenge the teacher

1.2.7.6. Reality of classroom practices

1.3. Historical - influence our present day educational system.

1.3.1. Development of education in Canada

1.3.1.1. Moral considerations

1.3.1.2. Political considerations

1.3.1.3. Anglicans, Presbyterians, Roman Catholics vying for control including education system

1.3.1.3.1. schooling was key in political social (Mifflen and Mifflen, 1982)

1.3.1.4. Deep influence by British Class Model

1.3.1.4.1. one system for elite

1.3.1.4.2. one system for working class

1.3.1.4.3. Social control

1.3.1.4.4. This model eventually dissapeared

1.3.2. Canadian tendency

1.3.2.1. believe in value & promotion of pluralism

1.3.2.1.1. Westerners

1.3.2.1.2. Central Canadians

1.3.2.1.3. Quebecois

1.3.2.1.4. Maritimers

1.3.2.1.5. this was seen as "normal" way of organizing society

1.3.3. Hidden Curriculum

1.3.3.1. educational & social inequality generated

2. Public Education, Globalization, and Democracy: Whither Alberta? (Kachur & Harrison)

2.1. Sociological - Functionalist, Symbolic Interaction, and Conflict Theory. How the education system prepares students to fit into mainstream society.

2.1.1. Strategic realignment of education interests around a politic of post-modern socialism

2.1.1.1. at the core is critique of capitalism, class and power

2.1.1.2. Post-modern socialist

2.1.1.2.1. integrates perceptions and experiences of groups and individuals who were marginalized because of ethnicity, race and/or gender

2.1.1.2.2. this avoids false tolerance of relativity though

2.1.2. Broad political and economic contexts which education is embedded in

2.1.2.1. too much blame on teachers and schools (without considering social conditions and political agenda that affect class)

2.1.2.1.1. education became way to avoid dealing directly with issues

2.1.2.2. education treated as both problem and solution for productivity decline and international competitiveness

2.1.2.2.1. diversion of attention from fundamental issues

2.1.3. Media

2.1.3.1. books and articles

2.1.3.1.1. portray public education as catastrophe, failure, bankrupcy

2.1.4. Relationship between Education and society

2.1.4.1. public education inseperable from broader issues

2.1.4.1.1. economy

2.1.4.1.2. politics

2.1.4.1.3. creating just society

2.1.4.1.4. education plays important role in "democratic awakening"

2.1.4.1.5. schools becoming less racist, sexist, or class-ridden and less authoritarian

2.1.4.2. schools socializing students for their future roles in labour force

2.1.4.2.1. increase parental choice

2.1.4.2.2. proposal to increase link between school and work

2.1.4.3. schooling is teacher intensive process

2.1.4.3.1. also attempt to increase parent involvement beneficial to student's learning process

2.1.5. Kachur & Harrison

2.1.5.1. intent to urge readers to shape future direction of public education

2.2. Historical - influence our present day educational system.

2.2.1. Education in post war era

2.2.1.1. capitalist in nature

2.2.1.1.1. politically and socially liberal premises

2.2.1.1.2. rise of globalization

2.2.1.2. Public education was perpetrator and victim of its own demise

2.2.1.3. "Welfare State"

2.2.1.3.1. historical compromise

2.2.1.3.2. increase public demand, competition, and economically threatened middle class

2.2.1.3.3. people attack idea of government itself

2.2.1.3.4. religious fundamentalist dislike increase secularism, pluralism and moral relativism taking part in the education system

2.2.2. Education restructuring

2.2.2.1. not unique in Canadian provinces

2.2.2.2. Teacher strikes

2.2.2.2.1. eg. Ontario in 1997-1998

2.2.2.3. Alberta first province to address equality of opportunity

2.2.2.3.1. lead to influence

2.2.2.4. continuously ideological driven

2.2.2.4.1. New Right provincial government

2.2.2.4.2. 1990s intense restructuring of education

2.2.3. Globalization

2.2.3.1. world wide scale

2.2.3.2. education is implicated in this neo liberalism

2.2.3.2.1. Alberta leading promoter of globalization in education

2.2.3.3. "new consensus"

2.2.3.3.1. advantage in global economy to country with best educated workforce

2.2.4. Changes

2.2.4.1. to tie between neo-liberalism and residual form of political social conservatism

2.2.4.1.1. Margaret Thatcher 1979

2.2.4.1.2. Ronald Reagan 1980

2.2.4.2. Liberal Education

2.2.4.2.1. eliminates conservative education

2.2.5. Canadian Constitution

2.2.5.1. Provinces responsible for education

2.2.6. 1970s

2.2.6.1. Canada crises

2.2.6.1.1. social

2.2.6.1.2. political

2.2.6.1.3. major impact on education

2.3. Philosophical - norms/values/attitudes should be cultivated, why these are important, how people learn, and pedagogical methods.

2.3.1. Political strategies

2.3.1.1. America first adopted Roger Douglas's strategy

2.3.1.1.1. create a crises, then strike fast and hard before opposition can be mobilized against new policies

2.3.1.2. Strategic realignment of education interests around a politics of post-modern socialism

2.3.2. New Right ideas introducd into Canada

2.3.2.1. changes of education was ignored

2.3.2.1.1. what was done to education, how was it done, how will it be in the future?

2.3.3. Neo Liberalism

2.3.3.1. narrowly construed meaning, purpose and value of education

2.3.3.2. long term consequences create great harm to communities, which include the effects on students and schools

2.3.3.3. far reaching effects are not understood/ examined in the past

3. Unequal Student Attainments: Class, Gender, and Race (Davies and Guppy, 2010)

3.1. Sociological - Functionalist, Symbolic Interaction, and Conflict Theory. How the education system prepares students to fit into mainstream society.

3.1.1. Females and ethnic minorities in education

3.1.1.1. Littles choices

3.1.1.2. Only can enter into low paying jobs (Marxists states of previous years)

3.1.1.3. Depicted female gender = less job opportunities that provide high wage

3.1.1.4. Sexism against careers and degrees

3.1.1.4.1. eg. In my first year i overheard many students say that only Engineers were male

3.1.2. Ethnically diverse nations

3.1.2.1. Ancestry

3.1.2.2. Race

3.1.2.3. Ethnicity with social class

3.1.2.4. Residence

3.1.3. Less education

3.1.3.1. low income careers

3.1.3.1.1. Stress upon parents and children

3.1.4. The Contexts of Schools

3.1.4.1. Children's learning methods and capacity

3.1.4.2. Children's acheivement in education

3.1.5. Mechanisms

3.1.5.1. Primary

3.1.5.1.1. social forces affecting education curriculum for students

3.1.5.2. Secondary

3.1.5.2.1. Inequality process affecting options for student's

3.1.6. Ability sources (Ridley, 2003)

3.1.6.1. Nature

3.1.6.1.1. Individual Inteligence

3.1.6.2. Nurture

3.1.7. Student's aspiration for attending school (Morgan, 2005)

3.1.7.1. Parental encouragement

3.2. Historical - influence our present day educational system.

3.2.1. Early 1960's

3.2.1.1. Fields like law reach gender parity

3.2.2. Neo-Marxists

3.2.2.1. Oppose school social inequalities

3.2.2.1.1. Highlight exisiting inequalities

3.2.3. Low-income households with youth are "four times more liekly to experiences delays in vocabulary development than the more affluent children in wealthier households" (Hertzman, 2000)

3.2.3.1. Children in more stable households/communities = higher grade averages on standardized test (Johnson, 2005)

3.2.3.2. Youths being raised by university educated parents (Williams, 2002; Statistics Canada, 2005).

3.2.3.2.1. Scored higher on exams in comparison to peers with parents that were not as educated

3.2.3.3. Youths raised from low-income families

3.2.3.3.1. three times more likely to drop out of high school than those from higher-income families (Zeman, 2007)

3.2.4. Sexism

3.2.4.1. Once male dominated levels of schooling

3.2.4.1.1. Only males allowed to attend school

3.2.4.1.2. Only males were allowed to attend higher education

3.2.5. Flynn Effect

3.2.5.1. IQ scores have been raising slowly (Flynn, 1999)

3.2.5.1.1. Nutrition

3.2.5.1.2. More participation within schooling

3.2.5.1.3. Hereditary effect

3.3. Philosophical - norms/values/attitudes should be cultivated, why these are important, how people learn, and pedagogical methods.

3.3.1. Succession due to parents

3.3.1.1. How far of an education parents got to

3.3.1.1.1. High school

3.3.1.1.2. Post-secondary

3.3.1.1.3. Grad School

3.3.1.2. What parents did for a living

3.3.1.3. Parent's income

3.3.2. Educated parents

3.3.2.1. Higher test grades

3.3.2.2. Better vocabulary

3.3.2.2.1. Literacy activites

3.3.2.3. Pass down knowledge

3.3.2.3.1. Previously have completed levels of school and curriculum

3.3.2.4. Study habits

3.3.2.5. Work ethic

3.3.3. Uneducated parents

3.3.3.1. Less exposure to reading

3.3.3.1.1. vocabulary level of student differs from educated parent

3.3.3.2. Less participation in lives of children's education

3.3.3.2.1. Less help in homework

3.3.3.3. Less advanced in education

3.3.3.3.1. eg. calculators, computers, etc

3.3.4. Community and school environment

3.3.4.1. Stable environment

3.3.4.1.1. better work ethic

3.3.5. Youth with lower school skill and achievement levels (Burkham et al., 2007)

3.3.5.1. streaming

3.3.5.2. ability grouping

3.3.5.3. special education

3.3.5.4. grade retention

3.3.5.5. Constricts learning opportunities

3.3.6. Student's learning abilities can be affected (Davies & Guppy, 2010)

3.3.6.1. Stress

3.3.6.2. School Contexts

3.3.6.3. neighbourhood contexts

3.3.6.4. Different origins

3.3.6.4.1. Different educational methods

3.3.6.4.2. Different educational choices

4. Racism: A Hidden Curriculum. Ghosh, R. (2008)

4.1. Historical - influence our present day educational system.

4.1.1. systemic racism

4.1.2. Canada history

4.1.2.1. hate-motivated violence towards racial or ethnic minorities

4.1.2.1.1. Aboriginals

4.1.2.1.2. South Asian Community

4.1.2.1.3. Japanese-Canadians in WW1

4.1.2.1.4. anti-Semitism

4.1.3. previous unfair treatment show us what NOT to do in the future

4.2. Sociological - Functionalist, Symbolic Interaction, and Conflict Theory. How the education system prepares students to fit into mainstream society.

4.2.1. increase in comtetativness

4.2.1.1. positive

4.2.1.2. negative

4.2.1.2.1. increases violence

4.2.2. racist and sexist materials have largely been removed from formal curricula (Ghosh 28)

4.2.3. safe school environment that is conductive to learning (Ghosh 28)

4.2.4. Educators- strive for social justice

4.2.5. "Colour-blindness"

4.2.5.1. Pretending that racism does not exist will only make more problems

4.2.5.1.1. will maintain white advantage (Ghosh 29)

4.2.5.2. Acknowledge that it exists and act appropriately

4.2.6. Treat everyone fairly

4.2.7. Teach without stereotypes or socially constructed images

4.2.7.1. no discrimination

4.2.7.2. no different treatment

4.3. Philosophical - norms/values/attitudes should be cultivated, why these are important, how people learn, and pedagogical methods.

4.3.1. racism: practiced by people in power.

4.3.2. racist society shows in school and learning

4.3.2.1. dangerous "sub concience" way of teaching

4.3.2.1.1. embedded in the social consciousness.

4.3.2.2. embedded in the social consciousness. (Ghosh 28)

4.3.2.2.1. hidden curriculum: a reflection of the sociocultural and economic-political structure of society. (Ghosh 28)

4.3.2.3. Educational discourse (language and practice) perpetuates racism in subtle ways. (Ghosh 28)

4.3.2.4. subconcience

4.3.2.5. teachers inadvertently reinforce social attitudes through their own prejudices and stereotypical assumptions about student capabilities and cultural behaviour. (Ghosh 28)

4.3.2.6. teachers hold high authority in a classroom

4.3.2.6.1. use it properly

4.3.2.6.2. be mindful

4.3.2.6.3. be inclusive

4.3.2.6.4. teach the curriculum critically (Ghosh 28)

4.3.2.6.5. universal acceptance

4.3.2.6.6. equal is always fair, but fair is not always equal (in class lecture)

4.3.2.6.7. recognize difference without allowing it to categorize people (Ghosh 28)

4.3.3. Wide range of teaching techniques

4.3.3.1. thoughtful teaching

4.3.3.2. "withitness"

4.3.3.3. prevent social division among

4.3.3.4. equal treatment

4.3.3.5. acknowledge that inequalities and racism exist. (Ghosh 28)

4.3.3.5.1. Cannot hide it

4.3.3.5.2. prevent it from being an issue in the classroom

4.3.3.6. educational system should incorporate multiple perspectives and different ways of knowing and learning (Ghosh 29)

4.3.3.7. implementation of the three C's: care, concern, connection (Ghosh 29)

4.3.3.7.1. in a world that inherently forms boundaries and divides people. Caring can bridge that divide. (Ghosh 29)

4.3.3.8. broaden goals

4.3.3.8.1. development of a civil society

5. Freedom of Religion and Postsecondary Education in Canada: Resolving Competing Claims. • Clarke, P. (2012)

5.1. Historical - influence our present day educational system.

5.1.1. British Columbia Court of Appeal

5.1.2. the British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal

5.1.3. religious discrimination

5.1.4. Teaching Profession Act

5.1.4.1. Regulate: Educational, professional, and competency standards (Clarke 191)

5.1.4.2. seek relief for the religious students who were stereotyped poorly because of their faith (Clarke 191)

5.1.5. Human rights Code

5.1.6. Civil Rights Protection Act

5.1.7. Belief: one can hold discriminatory beliefs and that religious freedom will protect those beliefs (Clarke 191)

5.1.7.1. freedom to hold beliefs is broader than the freedom to act on them (Clarke 191)

5.1.8. British Columbia Court of Appeal

5.1.8.1. addressed the issue of alleged religious discrimination

5.2. Sociological - Functionalist, Symbolic Interaction, and Conflict Theory. How the education system prepares students to fit into mainstream society.

5.2.1. seek relief for the religious students who were stereotyped poorly because of their faith

5.2.1.1. discrimination among homosexuals

5.2.1.1.1. students have a right to be educated in a school setting free from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation (Clarke 191)

5.2.1.1.2. need to consider religious freedom

5.2.1.2. mission: to equip Christians to serve God and people throughout society (Clarke 191)

5.3. Philosophical - norms/values/attitudes should be cultivated, why these are important, how people learn, and pedagogical methods.

5.3.1. educate in an environment free of bias, prejudice and intolerance. (Clarke 191)