# Thermal Physics

Get Started. It's Free
Thermal Physics

## 2. Ideal Gas Laws

### 2.1. As volume increases pressure increases in an inversely proportionally manner

2.1.1. P1+V1=P2+V2

## 4. Particles

### 4.1. Brownian Motion

4.1.1. Large Dust particles are moved by invisible particles

4.1.2. These invisible particles are air particles

4.1.3. The air particles are hitting the large Dust particles to them move.

## 5. States of Matter

### 5.1. Liquid

5.1.1. Has a fixed volume but shape can vary

5.1.2. Particles are close together and attract eachother

5.1.3. They vibrate so vigorously, the attraction cannot hold them in a fixed shape

### 5.2. Solid

5.2.1. When heated metals expand

5.2.1.1. Bi-Metallic Strip

5.2.2. Characteristics

5.2.2.1. Fixed shape or volume

5.2.2.2. Very strong force of attraction

5.2.2.3. Particles vibrate but cannot change position

### 5.3. Gas

5.3.1. No fixed shape

5.3.2. Less dense

5.3.3. Particles move faster

5.3.4. quickly fills any space

5.3.5. virtually free of any attraction

## 6. Evaporation

### 6.1. Ways to speed it up

6.1.1. Wind assists evaporation; for example in clothes dry faster under a fan.

6.1.2. Heat assists evaporation; for example, in summer clothes dry faster than in winter.

6.1.3. Increase in surface area exposed assists evaporation; for instance, a wet cloth spread out dries faster than when folded.

6.1.4. Rate of evaporation depends upon the nature of the liquid; for example, petrol evaporates faster than water.

6.1.5. Vapor pressure: if pressure is applied on the surface of a liquid, evaporation is hindered; consider, for example, the case of a pressure cooker.

6.1.6. Dryness assists evaporation; for instance, clothes dry faster in summer than during the monsoon when the air is humid.

## 7. Heat Energy

### 7.1. Internal Energy

7.1.1. the potential energy and the kinetic energy

7.1.2. The internal energy of a match is less than that of an Ice berg

### 7.2. Temperature

7.2.1. Temperature is the average Kinetic energy

7.2.2. The temperature of a match is greater than that of an Ice berg

### 7.3. Thermal Capacity

7.3.1. Energy needed to raise an object 1C

7.3.2. Compares objects NOT materials

### 7.4. Specific Thermal Capacity

7.4.1. Energy needed to raise 1 kg of a material by 1C

7.4.2. Compares materials despite size

### 7.5. Specific Latent Heat

7.5.1. Energy needed to change state

7.5.2. Q = MCΔT

7.5.3. Q = mL

## 8. Heat Transfer

### 8.1. Convenction

8.1.1. When an liquid or gas is heated from the bottom, a convection current is formed

8.1.1.1. 1.) The substance is heated so it becomes less dense and rises.

8.1.1.2. 2.) The space that is now empty is filled up.

8.1.1.3. 3.) The hot substance drifts across the surface as it fills up empty space

8.1.1.4. 4.) The hot substance cools down and falls to the bottom of the container

8.1.2. Particles "run" with heat

8.2.3. Black absorbs and emits radiation

8.2.4. Shiny things and white reflect radiation

### 8.3. Conduction

8.3.1. Particles "pass" the heat

8.3.2. Particles store heat energy as vibrations, these vibrations are passed throughout the substance through vibrations.

8.3.3. Metals are good conductors

8.3.4. Wood and air are good insulators