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Programming Paradigms by Mind Map: Programming Paradigms
5.0 stars - 1 reviews range from 0 to 5

Programming Paradigms

Procedural

Procedural paradigm is an approach to programming in which a programmer defines the steps for solving a problem.

Description

Emphasizes linear steps that provide the computer with instructions on how to solve a problem or carry out a task.

Types of Problems

can be solved using step-by-step algorithm

computing missile trajectories

transaction processing

many math and science problems

Computer Languages

BASIC

Pascal

COBOL

Fortran

Ada

Advantages

produce programs that run quickly and use system resources efficiently

understood by many programmers, software engineers, and systems analysts

flexible and powerful

Disadvantages

does not fit gracefully with certain types of problems

forces programmers to view problems as a series of steps

Object-oriented

Object-oriented paradigm is an approach to programming that focuses on the manipulation of objects rather than on the generation of procedure-based code.

Description

Formulates programs as a series of objects and methods that interact to perform a specific task.

Types of Problems

problems that can be envisioned as a set of objects that pass messages back and forth

real-world objects

Computer Languages

Smalltalk

C++

Java

Scratch

Advantages

programmers may visualize the solutions to problems more easily

can increase a programmer's efficiency because encapsulation allows objects to be adapted and reused in a variety of different programs

encapsulated objects can be easily reused, modified, and repurposed

Disadvantages

runtime efficiency

tend to require more memory and processing resources

Declarative

Declarative paradigm is an approach to the programming process in which a programmer writes a program by specifying a set of statements and rules that define the conditions for solving a problem.

Description

Focuses on the use of facts and rules to describe a problem.

Types of Problems

efficient for processing words and language

containing complex relationships

semi-structures problems

multiple, interrelated factors

Computer Languages

Prolog

Advantages

highly effective for problems with words, concepts, and complex logic

flexibility for querying a set of facts and rules

describe problems using words

Disadvantages

minimal input and output capabilities

relatively poor performance on personal computer architecture

Functional

Functional paradigm in an approach to programming that emphasizes the use of expressions called "functions."

Description

Emphasizes the evaluation of expressions, called functions.

Types of Problems

Computer Languages

LISP

Scheme

Haskell

Advantages

Disadvantages

Event-driven

Event-driven paradigm is an approach to programming in which a programmer creates programs that continually check for, and repsond to, program events, such as mouse clicks.

Description

Focuses on selecting user interface elements and defining event-handling routines that are triggered by various mouse or keyboard activities.

Types of Problems

user initiated events

Computer Languages

Visual Basic

C#

Advantages

can simplify programming process

reduce development time

VDE combines user interface elements and event-handling routines into a file

Disadvantages

syntax error

runtime error

logic error