Procedural paradigm is an approach to programming in which a programmer defines the steps for solving a problem.
Emphasizes linear steps that provide the computer with instructions on how to solve a problem or carry out a task.
can be solved using step-by-step algorithm
computing missile trajectories
many math and science problems
produce programs that run quickly and use system resources efficiently
understood by many programmers, software engineers, and systems analysts
flexible and powerful
does not fit gracefully with certain types of problems
forces programmers to view problems as a series of steps
Object-oriented paradigm is an approach to programming that focuses on the manipulation of objects rather than on the generation of procedure-based code.
Formulates programs as a series of objects and methods that interact to perform a specific task.
problems that can be envisioned as a set of objects that pass messages back and forth
programmers may visualize the solutions to problems more easily
can increase a programmer's efficiency because encapsulation allows objects to be adapted and reused in a variety of different programs
encapsulated objects can be easily reused, modified, and repurposed
tend to require more memory and processing resources
Declarative paradigm is an approach to the programming process in which a programmer writes a program by specifying a set of statements and rules that define the conditions for solving a problem.
Focuses on the use of facts and rules to describe a problem.
efficient for processing words and language
containing complex relationships
multiple, interrelated factors
highly effective for problems with words, concepts, and complex logic
flexibility for querying a set of facts and rules
describe problems using words
minimal input and output capabilities
relatively poor performance on personal computer architecture
Functional paradigm in an approach to programming that emphasizes the use of expressions called "functions."
Emphasizes the evaluation of expressions, called functions.
Event-driven paradigm is an approach to programming in which a programmer creates programs that continually check for, and repsond to, program events, such as mouse clicks.
Focuses on selecting user interface elements and defining event-handling routines that are triggered by various mouse or keyboard activities.
user initiated events
can simplify programming process
reduce development time
VDE combines user interface elements and event-handling routines into a file