Types of Information
by Sean Morrow
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Types of Information
What is a transation?
A transaction is an exchange between
two parties that is recorded and stored in
a computer system.
A Transaction Processing System provides
ways to collect process, store, display,
modify or cancel transactions.
Data collected by a transaction processing
system is stored in a database and can be
used to produce a regularly scheduled set of
Most modern transaction processing systems use online
processing which is a real time method in which each
transaction is processed while its entered. This system is
known as an online transaction processing system.
An online transaction processing system uses
a rollback strategy to ensure that each
transaction is processed correctly.
A typical transaction processing system
generates detail reports, which provide a
basic record of completed transactions.
A Management Information System is a type
of information system that uses data
collected by a transaction processing
system. It then manipulates the data to
create reports that managers can use to
make routine business decisions in response
to structured problems.
A major goal of a management information
system is o increase efficiency of managerial
activity. A management information system
can produce scheduled reports or ad hoc
Scheduled reports follow a fixed format and
are produced according to a preset
An ad hoc report is a customized report,
generated to supply specific information not
available in scheduled reports
A traditional management information
system is based on the data collected by a
transaction processing system.
A management information system
usually cannot create models or
Decision Support Systems
A decision support system is used to help people make
decisions by directly manipulating data, analyzing data
from external sources, generating statistical projections,
and creating data from various scenarios.
A special type of decision support system known as a
executive information system, is designed to provide senior
managers with information relevant to strategic
Decision makers use the system to
design decision models and make
A decision model is a numerical
representation of a realistic
A decision query is a question or set of
instructions describing data that must be
gathered to make a decision.
A decision support system helps people manipulate the
data needed to make a decision but does not actually
make a decision. A person must analyze the data and
research a decision.
An Expert System is a computer system designed to
analyze data and produce a recommendation,
diagnosis, or decision based on a set of facts and
Each expert system is designed to make decisions in a
particular area or domain. Some expert systems have been
developed to locate mineral deposits, diagnosis blood
diseases, order a customized PC, and recommend stock
Expert systems are designed to deal with data that is
imprecise. By using a technique called fuzzy logic, an
expert system can deal with imprecise data by asking for a
level of confidence.
How does an expert system
When it is time to make a decision, the inference engine begins analyzing
the available data by following the rules in the knowledge database. If
the expert system needs additional data, it checks external databases,
looks for data in the transaction processing system or asks the user to
answer a question.
A Neutral Network uses computer circuitry
to stimulate the way a brain might process
information, learn, and remember.
Neutral networks have been
successfully implemented in
many business and financial
identification and trend
analysis are important.