Generations of Computer Languages

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Generations of Computer Languages by Mind Map: Generations of Computer Languages

1. Second-Generation Languages

1.1. Second-Generation Languages or assembly language as it is also known, allows programmers to use abbreviated command words, called op codes. For example, LDA is the command for Load.

1.2. Assembly langauge is classified as a low level language because it is machine specific which means each assembly language command corresponds on a one-to-one basis to a machine language instruction.

1.3. An assembly language is useful when a programmer wants to directly manipulate what happens at the hardware level. Today, programmers usually use assembly language to write system software.

2. Fourth-Generation Languages

2.1. Fourth-Generation Languages were developed in 1969 and closely resembled human languages or natural languages.

2.2. Today, fourth-generation languages are typically used for database applications.

3. Fifth-Generation Languages

3.1. Japanese scientists began working on a fifth-generation computer project that used a programming language called Prolog.

3.2. Prolog became affiliated with the fifth-generation project and it was classified by experts as fifth-generation language.

3.2.1. Some experts disagree with this classification and instead define it as those that allow programmers to use graphical or visual tools to construct programs.

4. First-Generation Languages

4.1. First-Generation Languages are also known as machine languages. They were the first languages available for programming computers. They consist of a commands, represented as a series of 1s and 0s. They correspond to the instruction set that is hardwired into the circuitry of a microprocessor.

4.2. Machine language is specific to a particular CPU or microprocessor family. Although machine languages continue to work on today's computers, programmers rarely use machine languages to write programs.

5. Third-Generation Languages

5.1. Third-Generation Languages use easy-to-remember command words such as PRINT and INPUT.

5.2. Many computer scientists believed that third-generation would eliminate programming errors, but programming using third-generation languages still made a variety of errors.