by Jacqueline Bene
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Emphasizes linear steps that provide the
computer with instructions on how to solve a
problem or carry out a task.
Languages: BASIC, Pascal,
COBOL, Fortran, Ada
A program written in a procedural language typically
consists of self-contained instructions in a
Advantages: Programs detail how to solve a
Very efficient for number-crunching
Disadvantages: If the program cannot
define the steps for solving a
Formulates programs as a series of objects
and methods that interact to perform a
Languages: Smalltalk, C++,
Based on the idea that the solution for a
problem can be visualized in terms of objects
that interact with each other.
Advantages: Programs define objects,
classes, and methods.
Efficient for problems that
involve real-world objects
Disadvantages: Doesn't focus on
the generation of procedure-based
Focuses on the use of facts
and rules to describe a
Attempts to describe a problem without
specifying exactly how to arrive at a
Efficient for processing words
Disadvantages: Use a collection of facts and rules to
describe a problem.
Emphasizes the evaluation of expressions,
called functions, rather than the execution of
Languages: LISP, Scheme, Haskell
An approach to programming that
emphasizes the use of expressions called
Advantages: If the result of a pure
expression is not used, it can be removed
without affecting other expressions.
Disadvantages:If a pure function is called with
parameters that cause no side-effects, the
result is constant with respect to that parameter
Focuses on selecting user interface elements
and defining event-handling routines that are
triggered by various mouse or keyboard
Languages: Visual Basic, C#
The programmer is never required to
deal with the overall program
reduce development time.
Simplify the entire programming
Disadvantages: Omitting a
keyword, such as THEN.
Forgetting to close parentheses.