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Programming Paradigm by Mind Map: Programming Paradigm
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Programming Paradigm


Emphasizes linear steps that provide the computer with instructions on how to solve a problem or carry out a task.

Languages: BASIC, Pascal, COBOL, Fortran, Ada

A program written in a procedural language typically consists of self-contained instructions in a sequence.

Advantages: Programs detail how to solve a problem.

Disadvantages: If the program cannot define the steps for solving a problem.


Formulates programs as a series of objects and methods that interact to perform a specific task.

Languages: Smalltalk, C++, Java, Scratch

Based on the idea that the solution for a problem can be visualized in terms of objects that interact with each other.

Advantages: Programs define objects, classes, and methods.

Disadvantages: Doesn't focus on the generation of procedure-based code.


Focuses on the use of facts and rules to describe a problem.

Languages: Prolog

Attempts to describe a problem without specifying exactly how to arrive at a solution.

Advantages:Programs describe the problem.

Disadvantages: Use a collection of facts and rules to describe a problem.


Emphasizes the evaluation of expressions, called functions, rather than the execution of commands.

Languages: LISP, Scheme, Haskell

An approach to programming that emphasizes the use of expressions called "functions"

Advantages: If the result of a pure expression is not used, it can be removed without affecting other expressions.

Disadvantages:If a pure function is called with parameters that cause no side-effects, the result is constant with respect to that parameter list.


Focuses on selecting user interface elements and defining event-handling routines that are triggered by various mouse or keyboard activities.

Languages: Visual Basic, C#

The programmer is never required to deal with the overall program sequence.

Advantages: Significantly reduce development time.

Disadvantages: Omitting a keyword, such as THEN.