Unit 1

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Unit 1 by Mind Map: Unit 1

1. integrating

1.1. 1. to bring together or incorporate (parts) into a whole.

1.2. 2. to make up, combine, or complete to produce a whole or a larger unit, as parts do.

1.2.1. Example sentences for integrating: * If you think about integrating electronics with the human body, there's a real mismatch in terms of the mechanics and shape.

2. objectives

2.1. something that one's efforts or actions are intended to attain or accomplish; purpose; goal; target: the objective of a military attack; the objective of a fund-raising drive.

3. allocating

3.1. to set apart for a particular purpose; assign or allot: to allocate funds for new projects.

3.2. to fix the place of; locate.

4. motivation

4.1. the act or an instance of motivating, or providing with a reason to act in a certain way

4.1.1. I don't understand what her motivation was for quitting her job

4.2. the state or condition of being motivated

4.2.1. We know that these students have strong motivation to learn.

4.3. a video of motivation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s9ixnGK1qn8

5. subordinates

5.1. placed in or belonging to a lower order or rank.

5.2. of less importance; secondary.

6. classified

6.1. identified as belonging to a specific group or category, as one to which benefits or restrictions apply

6.1.1. Classified buildings are eligible for state-funded restoration. The bank has a list of classified customers to whom it will not make large loans.

6.2. confidential or secret.

6.2.1. The firm's promotional budget for next year is classified information.

6.3. arranged or distributed in classes or according to class.

6.3.1. We plan to review all the classified specimens in the laboratory.


7.1. a person who executes, carries out, or performs some duty, job, assignment, artistic work, etc.

7.2. Law. a person named in a decedent's will to carry out the provisions of that will.

8. expectation

8.1. the act or state of looking forward or anticipating.

8.2. a video of the meaning expectation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=899WlEY3ZQg

9. Authorities

9.1. the power to determine, adjudicate, or otherwise settle issues or disputes; jurisdiction; the right to control, command, or determine.

9.2. a power or right delegated or given; authorization: Who has the authority to grant permission?

9.3. a person or body of persons in whom authority is vested, as a governmental agency.

9.4. an accepted source of information, advice, etc.

9.5. a video of the meaning : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u85kXAxYeQ8

10. debts

10.1. something that is owed or that one is bound to pay to or perform for another: a debt of $50.

10.2. a liability or obligation to pay or render something: My debt to her for advice is not to be discharged easily.

10.3. the condition of being under such an obligation: His gambling losses put him deeply in debt.

10.4. a video related to debts: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScHl05bVwkA

11. eGlossary

11.1. Unit 2

11.1.1. ambitious strongly desirous having ambition; eagerly desirous of achieving or obtaining success, power, wealth, a specific goal, etc.: ambitious students. A youtube link to the word http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7b_Z8t2O5b4

11.1.2. corporate culture noun the philosophy, values, behavior, dress codes, etc., that together constitute the unique style and policies of a company. A website regarding the meaning of corporate culture http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/tips/archives/2006/08/what_is_your_co.html

11.1.3. esteem noun: favorable opinion or judgment; respect or regard: to hold a person in esteem. verb (used with object): *to regard highly or favorably; regard with respect or admiration: I esteem him for his honesty. *to consider as of a certain value or of a certain type; regard: I esteem it worthless.

11.1.4. hierarchy noun: 1. any system of persons or things ranked one above another. 2. government by ecclesiastical rulers. 3. the power or dominion of a hierarch. 4. an organized body of ecclesiastical officials in successive ranks or orders: the Roman Catholic hierarchy.

11.1.5. wages noun *Often, wages. money that is paid or received for work or services, as by the hour, day, or week. Compare living wage, minimum wage. *Usually, wages. Economics . the share of the products of industry received by labor for its work (as distinct from the share going to capital).

11.1.6. incentives noun: *something that incites or tends to incite to action or greater effort, as a reward offered for increased productivity. adjective *inciting, as to action; stimulating; provocative.

11.1.7. perks verb (used without object) 1. to become lively, cheerful, or vigorous, as after depression or sickness (usually followed by up ): The patients all perked up when we played the piano for them. 2. to act, or carry oneself, in a jaunty manner. 3. to put oneself forward briskly or presumptuously. verb (used with object) 4. to make smart, trim, or jaunty (sometimes followed by up or out ): to perk up a suit with a new white blouse. 5. to raise smartly or briskly (often followed by up or out ): to perk one's head up.

11.1.8. pessimistic adjective pertaining to or characterized by pessimism; gloomy: a pessimistic outlook.

11.1.9. remuneration noun 1. the act of remunerating. 2. something that remunerates; reward; pay: He received little remuneration for his services.

11.1.10. self-actualization noun Psychology . the achievement of one's full potential through creativity, independence, spontaneity, and a grasp of the real world. a youtube link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8kV8YO4YC6w

11.2. Unit 3

11.2.1. autonomous adjective 1. Government . a. self-governing; independent; subject to its own laws only. b. pertaining to an autonomy. 2. having autonomy; not subject to control from outside; independent: a subsidiary that functioned as an autonomous unit. 3. Biology . a. existing and functioning as an independent organism. b. spontaneous.

11.2.2. collaborating verb (used without object), col·lab·o·rat·ed, col·lab·o·rat·ing. 1. to work, one with another; cooperate, as on a literary work: They collaborated on a novel. 2. to cooperate, usually willingly, with an enemy nation, especially with an enemy occupying one's country: He collaborated with the Nazis during World War II.

11.2.3. delegate noun 1. a person designated to act for or represent another or others; deputy; representative, as in a political convention. 2. (formerly) the representative of a Territory in the U.S. House of Representatives. 3. a member of the lower house of the state legislature of Maryland, Virginia, or West Virginia. verb (used with object), del·e·gat·ed, del·e·gat·ing. 4. to send or appoint (a person) as deputy or representative. 5. to commit (powers, functions, etc.) to another as agent or deputy.

11.2.4. downsizing verb (used with object), down·sized, down·siz·ing. 1. to design or manufacture a smaller version or type of: The automotive industry downsized its cars for improved fuel economy. 2. to reduce in number; cut back. adjective 3. Also, down·sized. being of a smaller size or version: a downsize car.

11.2.5. independence noun 1. Also, independency. the state or quality of being independent. 2. freedom from the control, influence, support, aid, or the like, of others. 3. Archaic. a competency.

11.2.6. merger noun 1. a statutory combination of two or more corporations by the transfer of the properties to one surviving corporation. 2. any combination of two or more business enterprises into a single enterprise. 3. an act or instance of merging.

11.2.7. outsourcing verb (used with object), out·sourced, out·sourc·ing. 1. (of a company or organization) to purchase (goods) or subcontract (services) from an outside supplier or source. 2. to contract out (jobs, services, etc.): a small business that outsources bookkeeping to an accounting firm. verb (used without object), out·sourced, out·sourc·ing. 3. to obtain goods or services from an outside source: U.S. companies who outsource from China.

11.2.8. recession noun 1. the act of receding or withdrawing. 2. a receding part of a wall, building, etc. 3. a withdrawing procession, as at the end of a religious service. 4. Economics . a period of an economic contraction, sometimes limited in scope or duration. Compare depression

11.2.9. superior adjective 1. higher in station, rank, degree, importance, etc.: a superior officer. 2. above the average in excellence, merit, intelligence, etc.: superior math students. 3. of higher grade or quality: superior merchandise. 4. greater in quantity or amount: superior numbers. 5. showing a consciousness or feeling of being better than or above others: superior airs.

11.2.10. wikinomics ECONOMICS, INTERNET a description of the way the relationship between businesses and markets has changed because of much greater involvement of customers and users directly with products or companies. This is a combination of the words 'wiki' and 'economics'.

11.3. Unit 4

11.3.1. characteristics adjective 1. Also, char·ac·ter·is·ti·cal. pertaining to, constituting, or indicating the character or peculiar quality of a person or thing; typical; distinctive: Red and gold are the characteristic colors of autumn. noun 2. a distinguishing feature or quality: Generosity is his chief characteristic. 3. Mathematics . a. the integral part of a common logarithm. Compare mantissa. b. the exponent of 10 in a number expressed in scientific notation. c. the smallest positive integer n such that each element of a given ring added to itself n times results in 0.

11.3.2. collectivist noun the political principle of centralized social and economic control, especially of all means of production.

11.3.3. confrontation noun 1. an act of confronting. 2. the state of being confronted. 3. a meeting of persons face to face. 4. an open conflict of opposing ideas, forces, etc. 5. a bringing together of ideas, themes, etc., for comparison.

11.3.4. diversity noun, plural di·ver·si·ties. 1. the state or fact of being diverse; difference; unlikeness: diversity of opinion. 2. variety; multiformity. 3. a point of difference.

11.3.5. glocalization noun the practice of conducting business according to both local and global considerations.

11.3.6. globalization growth to a global or worldwide scale; "the globalization of the communication industry"

11.3.7. localization verb (used with object), lo·cal·ized, lo·cal·iz·ing. 1. to make local; fix in, or assign or restrict to, a particular place, locality, etc. verb (used without object), lo·cal·ized, lo·cal·iz·ing. 2. to gather, collect, or concentrate in one locality.

11.3.8. multinational noun 1. a large corporation with operations and subsidiaries in several countries. adjective 2. of, pertaining to, or involving several nations. 3. noting or pertaining to multinationals.

11.3.9. particularist noun 1. exclusive attention or devotion to one's own particular interests, party, etc. 2. the principle of leaving each state of a federation free to retain its laws and promote its interests. 3. Theology . the doctrine that divine grace is provided only for the elect.

11.3.10. stereotype noun 1. a process, now often replaced by more advanced methods, for making metal printing plates by taking a mold of composed type or the like in papier-mâché or other material and then taking from this mold a cast in type metal. 2. a plate made by this process. 3. a set form; convention. 4. Sociology . a simplified and standardized conception or image invested with special meaning and held in common by members of a group: The cowboy and Indian are American stereotypes. verb (used with object), ster·e·o·typed, ster·e·o·typ·ing. 5. to make a stereotype of. 6. to characterize or regard as a stereotype: The actor has been stereotyped as a villain. 7. to give a fixed form to.

11.4. Unit 5

11.4.1. testimonial noun 1. a written declaration certifying to a person's character, conduct, or qualifications, or to the value, excellence, etc., of a thing; a letter or written statement of recommendation. 2. something given or done as an expression of esteem, admiration, or gratitude. adjective 3. pertaining to or serving as a testimonial: a testimonial dinner for the retiring dean.

11.4.2. shortlist noun a list of those people or items preferred or most likely to be chosen, as winnowed from a longer list of possibilities.

11.4.3. referee noun 1. one to whom something is referred, especially for decision or settlement; arbitrator. 2. (in certain games and sports) a judge having functions fixed by the rules of the game or sport; umpire. 3. an authority who evaluates scientific, technical, or scholarly papers, grant proposals, or the like for the publication or funding institution to which they have been submitted. 4. Law. a person selected by a court to take testimony in a case and return it to the court with recommendations as to the decision. verb (used with object), ref·er·eed, ref·er·ee·ing. 5. to preside over as referee; act as referee in.

11.4.4. recruiters noun 1. a newly enlisted or drafted member of the armed forces. 2. a new member of a group, organization, or the like. 3. a fresh supply of something. verb (used with object) 4. to enlist (a person) for service in one of the armed forces. 5. to raise (a force) by enlistment. 6. to strengthen or supply (an armed force) with new members. 7. to furnish or replenish with a fresh supply; renew. 8. to renew or restore (the health, strength, etc.).

11.4.5. junior adjective 1. younger (designating the younger of two men bearing the same full name, as a son named after his father; often written as Jr. or jr. following the name): May I speak with the junior Mr. Hansen? Mr. Edward Andrew Hansen, Jr. Compare senior ( def 1 ) . 2. of more recent appointment or admission, as to an office or status; of lower rank or standing: a junior partner. 3. (in American universities, colleges, and schools) noting or pertaining to the class or year next below that of the senior. 4. Finance. subordinate to preferred creditors, mortgagees, and the like. 5. of later date; subsequent to: His appointment is junior to mine by six months.

11.4.6. Human Resources noun 1. people, especially the personnel employed by a given company, institution, or the like. 2. human resources department.

11.4.7. headhunters noun 1. a person who engages in headhunting. 2. a personnel recruiter for a corporation or executive recruitment agency. 3. an executive recruitment agency.

11.4.8. curriculum vitae noun, plural cur·ric·u·la vi·tae [kuh-rik-yuh-luh vahy-tee, vee-tahy; Latin koor-rik-oo-lah wee-tahy] 1. Also called vita, vitae. a brief biographical résumé of one's career and training, as prepared by a person applying for a job. 2. ( italics ) Latin. the course of one's life or career.

11.4.9. confirmation bias noun the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one's existing beliefs or theories.

11.4.10. candidate noun 1. a person who seeks an office, honor, etc.: a candidate for governor. 2. a person who is selected by others as a contestant for an office, honor, etc. 3. a person who is deserving of or seems destined for a certain end or fate: Such a reckless spender is a candidate for the poorhouse. 4. a student studying for a degree: Candidates for the B.A. will have to meet certain minimum requirements. verb (used without object), can·di·dat·ed, can·di·dat·ing. 5. to become a candidate for service as a new minister of a church; preach before a congregation that is seeking a new minister.

11.5. Unit 6

11.5.1. affirmative action noun an action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination.

11.5.2. apprentice noun 1. a person who works for another in order to learn a trade: an apprentice to a plumber. 2. History/Historical . a person legally bound through indenture to a master craftsman in order to learn a trade. 3. a learner; novice; tyro. 4. U.S. Navy. an enlisted person receiving specialized training. 5. a jockey with less than one year's experience who has won fewer than 40 races.

11.5.3. equality noun, plural e·qual·i·ties. 1. the state or quality of being equal; correspondence in quantity, degree, value, rank, or ability. 2. uniform character, as of motion or surface. 3. Mathematics . a statement that two quantities are equal; equation.

11.5.4. equity noun, plural eq·ui·ties. 1. the quality of being fair or impartial; fairness; impartiality: the equity of Solomon. Synonyms: disinterest, equitableness, impartiality, fair-mindedness, fairness, justness, evenhandedness, objectivity; justice, probity. Antonyms: bias, discrimination, inequity, injustice, partiality, partisanship, prejudice, unfairness, unreasonableness; injustice. 2. something that is fair and just: the equities of our criminal-justice system. 3. Law. a. Also called chancery. the application of the dictates of conscience or the principles of natural justice to the settlement of controversies. b. Also called chancery. a system of jurisprudence or a body of doctrines and rules developed in England and followed in the U.S., serving to supplement and remedy the limitations and the inflexibility of the common law. c. an equitable right or claim. d. equity of redemption. 4. the monetary value of a property or business beyond any amounts owed on it in mortgages, claims, liens, etc.: Over the years, they have carefully avoided tapping into their home equity for unnecessary expenses. 5. Informal. ownership, especially when considered as the right to share in future profits or appreciation in value.

11.5.5. prejudice noun 1. an unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason. 2. any preconceived opinion or feeling, either favorable or unfavorable. 3. unreasonable feelings, opinions, or attitudes, especially of a hostile nature, regarding a racial, religious, or national group. 4. such attitudes considered collectively: The war against prejudice is never-ending. 5. damage or injury; detriment: a law that operated to the prejudice of the majority.

11.5.6. quota noun 1. the share or proportional part of a total that is required from, or is due or belongs to, a particular district, state, person, group, etc. 2. a proportional part or share of a fixed total amount or quantity. 3. the number or percentage of persons of a specified kind permitted to enroll in a college, join a club, immigrate to a country, etc.

11.5.7. ratio noun, plural ra·tios. 1. the relation between two similar magnitudes with respect to the number of times the first contains the second: the ratio of 5 to 2, written 5:2 or 5/2. 2. proportional relation; rate: the ratio between acceptances and rejections. 3. Finance. the relative value of gold and silver in a bimetallic currency system.

11.5.8. sacked noun 1. a large bag of strong, coarsely woven material, as for grain, potatoes, or coal. 2. the amount a sack holds. 3. a bag: a sack of candy. 4. Slang. dismissal or discharge, as from a job: to get the sack. 5. Slang. bed: I bet he's still in the sack.

11.5.9. talent pool the suitable, skilled people who are available to be chosen to do a particular type of job: The company has failed to groom a new leader from its in-house talent pool. These companies have a large enough talent pool right here in this country of high-tech workers if they were willing to pay the same going wage.

11.5.10. strategic adjective 1. pertaining to, characterized by, or of the nature of strategy: strategic movements. 2. important in or essential to strategy. 3. (of an action, as a military operation or a move in a game) forming an integral part of a stratagem: a strategic move in a game of chess. 4. Military . a. intended to render the enemy incapable of making war, as by the destruction of materials, factories, etc.: a strategic bombing mission. b. essential to the conduct of a war: Copper is a strategic material.