don't include complete text in a reply email
if your emails are sloppy, you may seem careless,too
you appear to be shouting
contact in advance for big files
inform about attachment
HTW: try to keep short msgs in message, so don't have to open an attachment
I never realized that memos had a specific format. I always thought that memos were primarily informal. Upon further reading, I learned that there is more than one format, and in many cases the format is not that informal.
The intended audience must be taken into consideration for effective technical communication. The context must, in addition to the "reciever," be considered.
Researching helps one determine ethical communication. The book was a great source to check if you're writing ethically.
This topic really stuck with me. I was a graphic design major before switching to design management. It is very interesting to see that the design and visuals really help to increase understanding, in addition to helping break up large bodies of text. Also, how different colors/sizes of the text itself can be used in different situations.
Most email is very concise, about a page to a page and half. If it is longer, there is a chance that your reader may not make it to the end. It is important for other types of writing to be concise, too.
confirm your purpose
develop ideas, collaboration, listing, freewriting, clustering, who, what, where, when, why, how?, HTW mindmap?
organizing info, purpose, audience, logic, ethics
organizational strategy, sequential, numbered, transition words, sequence words, images to clarify sequence, chronological, timeline, flowchart, order of importance, increase/decreasing order, increasing order, powerpoints, decreasing order, numerous points and reader attentive to most important info, alert in intro, numbered lists, explanation of importance, general/specific, background, scope, context, examples, formal reports, HTW scientific reports, derived from deductive reasoning, flowchart can help when drafting, language to identify pattern, division, allows you to divide a whole idea into components, ex. physical items, images to show how everything is connected, lists to identify parts of whole, classification system to group parts together, classification, groups items according to similarites, well-designed and thought out categories, parallel structures, without leaving anything out, keywords to identify classes and rationals behind them, cause & effect, relationships between events, can be hard to prove that certain things CAUSED certain EFFECTS, only evidence that's directly linked, evidence of more general data, only plausible data, chart/diagram to organize info to show relationships, comparison/contrast, charts, tables, graphs, etc to show comparison, evaluative language, only representative language, data that's plausibly compared, HTW spatial, physical space or objects, info in relation to spaces affected by info, show how areas are affected, describe details of the space so that they are related to info, organize info that show connections between parts of space, consider using: subdivisions, images, lists, OVERALL TIPS, explicit, consistent, consider access method, ethically presented, identify primary and secondary points of info, task-based info should be in order of action
front matter, title, cover image, date, byline, table of contents, list of figures, executive summary/abstract, materials, parts, or tools lists, inside and return addresses, definitions, alerts and warnings, introductions, purpose/objective, scope, statement of problem, information/background, key terms, overview of organization, summary
body, procedures, data, steps
end matter, conclusions, additional information, troubleshooting suggestions, additional warning/alerts, recommendations, indexes, appendixes, glossaries, contact information, follow-up information
Aristotle: "study of the available means of persuasion in any given situation"
Thinking rhetorically, exigency, To inform, To define, To explain, To propose, To convince, workplace writer, correctness, experience/expertise, goodwill, identification, Trust, audience, vary/ multiple audiences, transnational audiences, localization, general, radical, benefits, improve sales, overcome cultural differences, overcome inherent resistance, reach world markets/ niches, internalization, globalization, verbal communication, guidelines, HTW write clearly, correct punctuation, definite articles, avoid pronouns, terminology consistent, HTW avoid idioms, acronyms, abbreviations, jargon, slang, avoid comparatives, localize writing, alphabetic differences, local numbers, time differences, time sensitive information, avoid holiday references, may offend, avoid cultural references, avoid humor, insulting/offensive, account for visual/auditory perceptions, HTW consider visual perceptions, Ask Jeeves, colors, animals, avoid images of people/hand gestures, "okay" vs "zero", reevaluate design elements/principles, read left-right vs right-left, 30% more space than english, account for sound interpretation, computer beeps in US vs Japan, expectations/attitudes, use documents differently, document, audience needs, create credibility, ethos, contextual factors/ constraints, don't exist in a vacuum, Ex. Location
intranets, private networks to share/collab, authentication needed
HTW PG 256: The reading in the HTW says that IM falls somewhere between telephone calls and email messaging. The general ettiquette for instant messages is to keep messages simple and cover only one subject in each message. Also, abbreviations are very common but should be avoided when the receipient may not understand them. There is a great example of an instant message screen on PG 257
plan, draft, revise, manage documents
HTW: presentations, spreadsheets, documents
IM, videoconfrencing, blogging
normative ethics, study of ethics concerned with classifying what is considered right/wrong
applied ethics, study of particular ethical issues, problems, and circumstances
metaethics, study of where ethical ideas come from/develop
ethics/laws not the same, liability laws, environmental laws, copyright laws, patent laws, trademark and service mark laws, contract laws
misinterpret issue, abstract language, jargon, emphasis/suppression of info, visual rhetoric, plagiarism, inaccurate info, double check everything!
language, target language, national languages, international English, text direction, writing style
technology, same technology?, machine translation, limited capabilities
education, literacy, common knowledge, learning style
politics/law, trade issues, legal issues, political traditions/symbols
society, age, business etiquette, family/social interaction
economics, currency value, exchange rates, assigning monetary value
work with a translator, translation, terminology, clarity, cultural/rhetorical, design