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L2 Reading Acquisition by Mind Map: L2 Reading Acquisition
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L2 Reading Acquisition




Top-Bottom Theory


activating prior knowledge

creating a connection

questioning-before, during, after

visualizing-"picture in reader's mind"

determining what's important

forming an inference


assessing level of background knowledge and providing ways to learn background knowledge in L1or L2


text rich environment

Reader generates meaning through reading to confirm expectations based on above expectations.

text should include native culture

assess and reassess

benchmarkand progress monitoring charts, graphs to share with student and families

constructivism approach

Keep language in teaching of L2 reading


develop vocabulary and background

sticky notes

Interactive Approach


dialogue-real communication

balance approach

combining vocab development with phonics

150,000 words needed to read fluently, need to combine vocab with phonics

use top down until unfamiliar word, then use decoding (bottom up)

reading becomes component of language - reading, writing, speaking, listening



Bottom-Up Theory

  "Hooked on Phonics"

larger to smaller units of sound

direct, explicit, & systematic

rehearsal and reading practice to develop fluency

blending sounds

make sure that phonemic awareness is present in L1 and L2



establish clear and fair criteria

Have students identify words they don't know

Make sure that error rates for reading material is within the correct parameters for independent and instructional levels.


Family Literacy

Literacy at home in primary language facilitates transfer of skills

Family interviews

Multi-cultural Materials

be mindful of English background knowledge in fairy tales, nursery rhymes, etc. and ensure that ELL students are privy to this knowledge

Words Their Way activities

cultural experiences such as holidays and traditions

expect student to make sounds they are only able to make

work from whole to part and back to whole

explicitly teach about diversity, the differences between cultures, the assumptions that cultures have.


phonemic awareness not discrimination

involve students in rhyme, poetry and song

sort objects of pictures into groups by sound

Use movement when rehearsing sound/symbol relationships


student-friendly definitions

"cash in on cognates" Cognate Word Wall

context as a clue

Word Posters

Vocabulary Box

Productive and passive. We must remember to teach productive