Animal Cell

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Animal Cell by Mind Map: Animal Cell

1. Mitochondria

1.1. generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy

1.2. Therefore is called the "powerhouse" of the cell

1.3. Also involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth

1.4. compartments or regions include the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner membrane, and the cristae and matrix, which carry out specialised functions

1.5. outer and inner membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins

1.6. inner mitochondrial membrane is compartmentalized into numerous cristae, which expand the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane, enhancing its ability to produce ATP

1.7. the area of the inner membrane is about five times greater than the outer membrane for liver mitochondria

2. Nucleus

2.1. The “brains” of the cell, the nucleus directs cell activities and contains genetic material called chromosomes made of DNA

2.2. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome

2.3. function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression — the nucleus is therefore the control center of the cell

2.4. The nuclear envelope consists of two cellular membranes, an inner and an outer membrane, arranged parallel to one another

2.5. Nuclear pores provide aqueous channels through the envelope

3. Lysosomes

3.1. Are spherical organelles that contain enzymes (acid hydrolases)

3.2. digest excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria

3.3. The membrane around a lysosome allows the digestive enzymes to work at the 4.5 pH they require

3.4. fuse with vacuoles and dispense their enzymes into the vacuoles, digesting their contents

4. Plasma Membrane

4.1. surrounds the protoplasm of a cell and, in animal cells, physically separates the intracellular components from the extracellular environment

4.2. made of two layers of phospholipids

4.3. regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Many molecules cross the cell membrane by diffusion and osmosis

5. Endoplasmic Reticulum

5.1. Smooth

5.1.1. has functions in several metabolic processes, including synthesis of lipids and steroids, metabolism of carbohydrates, regulation of calcium concentration, drug detoxification, attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins, and steroid metabolism

5.1.2. connected to the nuclear envelope

5.1.3. has tubules and vesicles that branch forming a network. The network of SER allows increased surface area for the action or storage of key enzymes and the products of these enzymes.

5.2. Rough

5.2.1. studded with protein-manufacturing ribosomes

5.2.2. membrane of the RER is continuous with the outer layer of the nuclear envelope

5.2.3. membrane-bound vesicles shuttle proteins between the Golgi Apparatus and RER

6. Ribosomes

6.1. Synthesise proteins from amino acids

6.2. DNA makes RNA, which then makes protein

7. Golgi Apparatus

7.1. The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and package macromolecules, such as proteins and lipids, after their synthesis and before they make their way to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion, and forms part of the cellular endomembrane system

7.2. composed of membrane-bound stacks known as cisternae

7.3. integral in modifying, sorting, and packaging macromolecules for cell secretion (exocytosis) or use within the cell

7.4. primarily modifies proteins delivered from the rough endoplasmic reticulum but is also involved in the transport of lipids around the cell, and the creation of lysosomes

7.5. The transport mechanism which proteins use to progress through the Golgi apparatus is not yet clear

8. Vacuole

8.1. Used for storage, and usually contain water or food

8.2. Are enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including various enzymes in solution, though in certain cases they may contain solids which have been engulfed

8.3. no basic shape or size, its structure varies according to the needs of the cell