capture light energy to conserve free energy in the form of ATP
Two membranes contain and protect the inner parts of the chloroplast. The stroma is an area inside of the chloroplast where reactions occur and starches (sugars) are created. One thylakoid stack is called a granum. The thylakoids have chlorophyll molecules on their surface.
That chlorophyll uses sunlight to create sugars. The stacks of sacs are connected by stromal lamellae. The lamellae act like the skeleton of the chloroplast, keeping all of the sacs a safe distance from each other and maximizing the efficiency of the organelle.
When the energy from the Sun hits a chloroplast, chlorophyll uses that energy to combine carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). The molecular reactions create sugar and oxygen (O2).
is located outside the cell membrane and provides these cells with structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism
acts as a pressure vessel, preventing over-expansion when water enters the cell.
the strongest component of the complex cell wall is a carbohydrate called cellulose, which is a polymer of glucose.
the cell wall is flexible, meaning that it will bend rather than holding a fixed shape, but has considerable tensile strength
Unlike in an animal cell which has numerous small vacuoles, plant cells have a large central vacuole
is a water-filled volume enclosed by a membrane known as the tonoplast
maintains the cell's turgor, controls movement of molecules between the cytosol and sap, stores useful material and digests waste proteins and organelles.