Adapting and Differentiating Instruction

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Adapting and Differentiating Instruction by Mind Map: Adapting and Differentiating Instruction

1. Approaches

1.1. Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

1.1.1. Creating learning environments that are flexible and adaptive.

1.1.2. Adaptive methods providing “multiple means” of representation, expression, and engagement.

1.1.3. Curriculum

1.1.4. Instructional Goals Methods Materials Assessments

1.1.5. Inclusionary practices in the classroom UDL focused on removing barriers to learning

1.2. Universal Design for Instruction (UDI)

1.2.1. A framework for education that uses Universal Design principles to create learning environments that are accessible by all students

1.2.2. Universal Design/Inclusive Design “Broad spectrum” ideas used to create buildings, products, environments, etc that are accessible to all people regardless of impairments/disabilities or other factors.

1.2.3. Adaptive Methods Differentiating instruction according to the needs of individual students The language used in the wiki article is “considering”, which implies a proactive element, Instruction that eliminates unnecessary instructional and learning barriers.

1.2.4. Benefits all students, as opposed to only working with an individual student.

1.2.5. University of Connecticut researchers proposed the following principles: Materials and activities should be: 1: Accessible and fair 2: Flexible 3: Straightforward and consistent 4: Explicit The learning environment should be Supportive Flexible Straightforward and consistent Explicit Classroom/Delivery Environment Tolerance for error Appropriate size and space of classroom for instructional needs

1.3. Co-Teaching

1.3.1. Co-teaching is two or more equally-qualified teachers working together to fulfill the needs of every students in the classroom. They might have different areas of expertise and deliver instruction as a team. Both instructors must participate fully in the instruction. This does not mean that they are always doing the same thing at the same time; rather, that they are coordinated to deliver the instruction as effectively as possible. A student teacher and a cooperating teacher is an example of co-teaching, though it would be re-defined as two trained individuals, as opposed to equally-qualified. Another common example is a classroom where a general education teacher and a special education teacher co-teach a lesson. Co-teaching is a current buzzword and is one of the hottest trends in teaching, but is often implemented poorly, with one teacher serving a diminished role as the other takes ownership of the classroom. This can be very confusing to students. In order for co-teaching to be effective, the lessons must be carefully planned so that it is clear to students what each teacher’s role is in supporting their learning, and so that those roles are as equitable as possible.

1.3.2. Several strategies include: 1. Supportive Co-teaching: One teacher takes the lead and the other rotates around the classroom providing support to the students 2. Parallel co-teaching: The teachers instruct different groups of students simultaneously. 3. Complementary co-teaching: One teacher delivers instruction while the other supplements the instruction in some way (eg. modeling). 4. Team Teaching: The teachers teach alongside one another sharing equal duties in instruction, modeling, and assessing.

1.4. Adaptive Physical Education

1.4.1. APE is a physical education curriculum that has been adapted to the needs of a person with a disability so that they are able to get out of the curriculum the same things which a person without disabilities would get. Physical education is defined as: physical and motor skills fundamental motor skills and patterns (throwing, catching, walking, running, etc) skills in aquatics, dance, and individual and group games and sports (including intramural and lifetime sports)

1.4.2. It is federally mandated that all students receive physical education, so therefore this is a direct service as children with disabilities are also required to receive physical education. Things such as occupational services are separate from adaptive physical education, as they are not mandated. This is required by IDEA.

1.4.3. There are national standards for APE just like regular PE. 14 states have adopted adapted physical education endorsements and certifications, but the other 36 still have not.

2. Methods of Inclusion

2.1. Full Inculsion

2.1.1. Inclusion refers to the placement of students who display one or more disabilities in age-appropriate general education classrooms together with needed accommodations and supports. Inclusion is based on the belief that all children are capable of learning, children with disabilities benefit from being educated with students who do not display disabilities, and inclusion promotes equal educational opportunities. Inclusion directly affects students with disabilities, their teachers, and support staff. Additionally, the impact of inclusion can be school-wide, affecting many aspects of schooling.

2.2. Mainstreaming

2.2.1. See Inclusion. "Full inclusion," which is neither a legal nor a precise term, continues to be an active area of litigation, and the answer as to whether a particular child with a disability is entitled to it continues to be that it depends on various factors, including the individual child.

2.2.2. Mainstreaming was the popular term used for the legal doctrine of least restrictive environment (LRE). This term and its underlying concept are the products of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, during which time courts judged as illegal segregation on the basis of race.

2.2.3. Mainstreaming has often been interpreted to mean that students with disabilities must be included and instructed in regular classroom settings, which are considered to be the mainstream or normal educational environment. This is not true. In cases of severe disability, the educational agency may remove a student from regular class when instruction in that class with supplementary aids and services such as resource rooms cannot be satisfactorily accomplished.

2.3. Segregation

2.3.1. Segregation, or, the strategic isolation of individuals as a result of such characteristics as race, religion, social class, or sexual orientation

2.3.2. Segregated education involves keeping individuals with specific special needs completely isolated from the general population for certain curricular experiences.

2.4. Exclusion

2.4.1. Complete exclusion from a general education classroom

2.4.2. Think "special" schools

3. Definitions

3.1. Getting Started

3.1.1. Impairment Any loss or abnormality of physiological, psychological, or anatomical structure or function, whether permanent or temporary. Identifying impairments that contribute to disability, a functional problem for a patient, is a key factor for a health professional to determine appropriate treatment. (Wikipedia) From the Abramo Article: Impairment is the physical fact of lacking an arm or a leg. Disability is the social process that turns an impairment into a negative by creating barriers to access. An impairment involves a loss or diminution of sight, hearing, mobility, mental ability, and so on. But an impairment only becomes a disability when society creates environments with barriers—affective, sensory, cognitive, or architectura

3.1.2. Disability Is the consequence of an impairment that may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental, or some combination of these. A disability may be present from birth, or occur during a person's lifetime. Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. Thus, disability is a complex phenomenon, reflecting an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. An individual may also qualify as disabled if they have had an impairment in the past or is seen as disabled based on a personal or group standard or norm. Such impairments may include physical, sensory, and cognitive or developmental disabilities. Mental disorders (also known as psychiatric or psychosocial disability) and various types of chronic disease may also qualify as disabilities.

3.2. Models

3.2.1. Medical Model of Disability abnormal physical or mental conditions that limit individuals. These limiting conditions are considered ailments that require rehabilitation, such as physical therapy, medicine, surgery, or other correction.

3.2.2. Social Model of Disability not limitation of the body or mind but as a social position. Barriers in place in society disable people. Society is the issues, not the person.

3.3. Instruction Terms

3.3.1. Differentiation A method of creating different avenues into a learning experiences for learners at different levels or ability classifications. Involves classification of individual learners through pre-testing and post-testing. Tracking of students into groupings of like learners is often a manner of differentiating (this can be problematic). Providing students with multiple examples in different modes is also a way of differentiating.

3.3.2. Adaptation Structuring learning activities around a learner’s specific needs. This include accommodations and modifications.

3.3.3. Accomodation a change that helps individuals work around their impairments. These can be physical and environmental changes. This does not involve changing the curricular or instructional models to the students, themselves, but allows the learner to access that is already in place with some sort of helpful tood.

3.3.4. Modification Changes is what or how something is taught to a learner. In this, the curriculum, learning targets, and/or assessment strategies are altered for an individual student. These changes are intended to help students succeed to some degree on an academic challenge.

4. Individuals of Note

5. Disability Diagnosis

5.1. Autism Spectrum Disorders

5.2. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

5.3. Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

5.4. Learning Disorders