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Augmented Reality (AR) by Mind Map: Augmented Reality (AR)
5.0 stars - 5 reviews range from 0 to 5

Augmented Reality (AR)

I created this map as part of my research at my university (in 2-2010). The information is largely based on the sources listed below. I would like to upgrade it from time to time. So please feel free to send me suggestions or information about changes/mistakes: or @knust (twitter). Current AR examples in my blog: Notice the hyperlinks on many branches for more information. Sources used: Azuma, Ronald T.(1997): A Survey of Augmented Reality.     Azuma, Ronald T.; Yohan Baillot; Reinhold Behringer; Steven Feiner; Simon Julier; Blair MacIntryre (2001): Recent Advances in Augmented Reality     Bertelsen, Olav W.; Christina Nielsen (2000): Augmented Reality as a Design Tool for Mobile Interfaces     Billinghurst, Mark; Hirokazu Kato (2002): Collaborative Augmented Reality. In: Communications of the ACM, vol. 45, no. 7     Bimber, Oliver; Ramesh Raskar (2005): Spatial Augmented Reality. Merging Real and Virtual Worlds.     Jacob, Robert J.K.; Audrey Girouard; Leanne M. Hirshfield; Michael S. Horn, Orit Shaer; Erin Treacy Solovey; Jamie Zigelbaum (2008): Reality-Based Interaction: A Framework for Post-WIMP Interfaces     Kan, Tai-Wei; Ching-Hung Teng; Wen-Shou Chou (2009): Applying QR Code in Augmented Reality Applications.     Milgram, Paul; Haruo Takemura, Akira Utsumi, Fumio Kishino (1994): Augmented Reality. A class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum.     Nilsson, Susanna; Bjön Johansson; Arne Jönsson (2009): Using AR to support cross-organisational collaboration in dynamic tasks.     Obst, Benjamin; Ludwig Tröller (2009): Augmented Reality. Ausarbeitung zum Seminar „Innovationsforum“. SoSe 2009. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin     Sairo, Mikko (2001): Augmented Reality. Helsinki University of Technology     Pair, Jarell; Laboratory 4 (2010): The Reality of Augmented Reality.   Wen, Howard; (2010): Augmented reality: Pure hype or Next Big Thing in mobile? White, Sean; David Fend; Steven Feiner (2009): Interaction and Presentation Techniques for Shake Menus in Tangible Augmented Reality Zhou, Feng; Henry Been-Lirn Duh, Mark Billinghurst (2008): Trends in Augmented Reality Tracking, Interaction and Display. A Review of Ten Years of ISMAR.  

Business Models

User pays

Corporate Pays

Education, Sports, cultural venues

Local & Hyper Local


by Milgram

3 characteristics by Azuma

Technologie that creates superimposing/precisely overlaying computergenerated objects on physical objects to suport functions and tasks in real-time (HCI for case-based support).

Related Fields

Virtual Reality (VR)

Mixed Reality (MR)

Reality-Virtuality Continuum (Milgram 94)

Augmented Virtuality (AV)


1960 - Ivan Sutherland - first HMD (Head Mounted Display)

usage in HUDs for militray purposes (jets) + research program

'90 usage for maintenance and repair

today: consumer market reached, hype

1990 - Term coined by Thomas Caudell (Boeing)

Added Value + Visions

Cognitive Advantages

Alleviation of taks (support of real challenges)

Collaboration (CSCW)

interactive advertising

Multimodal UI + AR

coexisting perception of real and virtual objects

cost reduction (training, print, time,...)

long-term objective: perfect mixture/connection of reality and virtuality

New source of revenue for publishers?







Annotation of real world objects

Path planing for robots


Crisis management group

Use Cases

USPS Priority Mail Virtual Box Simulator

Topps 3D Live Trading Cards

Zugara Webcam-based shopping

mobile AR Browser

QR Codes for fiducials

Remote control and guide with PDA

Sixth Sense Project

SAP BMW Supply Chain

Make-up Kiosk Fujitsu Tokio

Domestic Robocop

Trends + Future

Mobile AR

shift of basic to product research (Interaction technologies, Mobile AR,...)

Ubiquitous Tracking combined with new sensors

HMD improvements


Stronger immersion

react on user behaviour

usage for cooperative work

AR at the mass market + embedded in various systems

Higher realism

See-through displays can become the sony walkman of the early 21th century (Feiner 96)

market potential mobile AR (2009: 1 Mill; 2010: over 700 Mill $ Jupiter Research)

multimodal interaction

AR continous what the internet started (Perey Research & Consulting)

Enabling Technologies

Basis structure

Tracking + Registration



User Interface

Natural Usage



Creating Added Value


Hardware Costs

Energy consumption

Standard data formats

Social + Political Problems

mobile computing performance


Browser based

Image Recognition

tracking libraries

this branch is growing...