3Ps of people's responses to Earthquakes

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3Ps of people's responses to Earthquakes by Mind Map: 3Ps of people's responses to Earthquakes

1. Preparedness

1.1. Land use regulations

1.1.1. A set of rules implemented to restrict developments in certain areas.

1.1.2. For example, in California, USA, all new building developments are not built across fault lines or areas at risk of liquefaction. Liquefaction occurs when vibrations from an earthquake cause saturated soil to flow like liquid. The ground becomes unstable and buildings should not be constructed in these areas as it is unsafe.

1.2. Emergency drills

1.2.1. A form of preparedness measure where people practice the steps to take when an earthquake occurs.

1.2.2. People take part in emergency drills by moving to safe locations, listening to instructions given by trained personnel and practicing first-aid.

1.3. Education and awareness

1.3.1. Governments of earthquake-prone countries set out to educate people on the dangers and safety procedures in response to an earthquake.

1.3.2. Posters and signs are used to warn people about areas that are more prone to the effects of earthquakes, such as those which advise the public to seek higher ground and move away from the coast.

2. Prediction

2.1. Earthquake monitoring and warning system

2.1.1. Technological devices such as monitoring and warning systems allow scientists to warn people of potential hazards so that they can evacuate.

2.1.2. Earthquakes can be monitored by studying the history of when and where earthquakes have occurred. This provides an estimation of the frequency and magnitude of earthquakes at particular fault lines. In this way, earthquakes can be predicted.

3. Prevention

3.1. Building design

3.1.1. Effective building design can reduce the collapse of buildings and minimise the damage caused by an earthquake.

3.1.2. Steel and reinforced concrete are able to withstand earthquakes better than more brittle materials such as non-reinforced concrete.

3.2. Level of preparedness of the government and public

3.2.1. The amount of preparation taken by the authorities and citizens make a significant difference to the impact of the earthquake. The damage caused by an earthquake is more manageable when people are better prepared for it.

3.2.2. When authorities are able to predict earthquakes and warn people ahead of their occurrence, people can be evacuated out of buildings, or away from the coast in the even of a tsunami. Therefore, deaths and injuries can be minimised.