English Grammar (Граматика английского)

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English Grammar (Граматика английского) by Mind Map: English Grammar (Граматика английского)

1. Parts of word (Части слова)

1.1. Prefix (Префикс)

1.1.1. Prefix / Meaning / Example a-, an- / without / amoral ante- / before / antecedent anti- / against / anticlimax auto- / self / autopilot circum- / around / circumvent co- / with / copilot com-, con- / with / companion, contact contra- / against / contradict de- / off, away from / devalue dis- / not / disappear en- / put into / enclose ex- / out of, former / extract, ex-president extra- / beyond, more than / extracurricular hetero- / different / heterosexual homo- / same / homonym hyper- / over, more / hyperactive il-, im-, in-, ir- / not, without / illegal, immoral, inconsiderate, irresponsible in- / into / insert inter- / between / intersect intra- / between / intravenous macro- / large / macroeconomics micro- / small / microscope mono- / one / monocle non- / not, without / nonentity omni- / all, every / omniscient post- / after / postmortem pre-, pro- / before, forward / precede, project sub- / under / submarine syn- / same time / synchronize trans- / across / transmit tri- / three / tricycle un- / not / unfinished uni- / one / unicorn

1.2. Sufix (Суфикс)

1.2.1. Suffix / Meaning / Example -acy / state or quality / privacy -al / act or process of / refusal -ance, -ence / state or quality of / maintenance, eminence -dom / place or state of being / freedom, kingdom -er, -or / one who / trainer, protector -ism / doctrine, belief / communism -ist / one who / chemist -ity, -ty / quality of / veracity -ment / condition of / argument -ness / state of being / heaviness -ship / position held / fellowship -sion, -tion / state of being / concession, transition -ate / become / eradicate -en / become / enlighten -ify, -fy / make or become / terrify -ize, -ise / become / civilize -able, -ible / capable of being / edible, presentable -al / pertaining to / regional -esque / reminiscent of / picturesque -ful / notable for / fanciful -ic, -ical / pertaining to / musical, mythic -ious, -ous / characterized by / nutritious, portentous -ish / having the quality of / fiendish -ive / having the nature of / creative -less / without / endless -y / characterized by / sleazy

1.3. Roots (Корень)

1.3.1. -ast(er)-(G) / star / asteroid, astronomy -audi- (L) / hear / audible, audience -auto- (G) / self / automatic, autopsy -bene- (L) / good / benefit, benign -bio- (G) / life / biography, biology -chrono- (G) / time / chronic, synchronize -dict- (L) / say / dictate, diction -duc- (L) / lead, make / deduce, produce -gen- (L) / give birth / gene, generate -geo- (G) / earth / geography, geology -graph- (G) / write / autograph, graph -jur-, -jus- (L) / law / jury, justice -log-, -logue- (L) / thought / logic, obloquy -luc- (L) / light / lucid, translucent -man(u)- (L) / hand / manual, manure -mand-, -mend- (L) / order / demand, recommend -mis-, -mit- (L) / send / missile, transmission -omni- (L) / all / omnivorous -path- (G) / feel / empathy, pathetic -phil- (G) / love / philosophy, bibliophile -phon- (G) / sound / phonics, telephone -photo- (G) / light / photograph, photon -port- (L) / carry / export, portable -qui(t)- (L) / quiet, rest / acquit, tranquil -scrib-, -script- (L) / write / ascribe, script -sens-, -sent- (L) / feel / resent, sensitive -tele- (G) / far off / telecast, telephone -terr- (L) / earth / terrain, territory -vac- (L) / empty / evacuate, vacate -vid-, -vis- (L) / see / visible, video

1.4. Alphabet (Алфавит)

1.4.1. Буквы

1.4.1.1. A a [eɪ] эй

1.4.1.2. B b [biː] би

1.4.1.3. C c [siː] си

1.4.1.4. D d [diː] ди

1.4.1.5. E e [iː] и

1.4.1.6. F f [ɛf] эф

1.4.1.7. G g [dʒiː] джи

1.4.1.8. H h [eɪtʃ] эйч

1.4.1.9. I i [aɪ] ай

1.4.1.10. J j [dʒeɪ] джей

1.4.1.11. K k [keɪ] кей

1.4.1.12. L l [ɛl] эл

1.4.1.13. M m [ɛm] эм

1.4.1.14. N n [ɛn] эн

1.4.1.15. O o [əʊ], [oʊ] оу

1.4.1.16. P p [piː] пи

1.4.1.17. Q q [kjuː] кью

1.4.1.18. R r [ɑ:], [ɑ:r] а:, ар

1.4.1.19. S s [ɛs] эс

1.4.1.20. T t [tiː] ти

1.4.1.21. U u [juː] ю

1.4.1.22. V v [viː] ви

1.4.1.23. W w [ˈdʌb(ə)l juː] дабл-ю

1.4.1.24. X x [ɛks] экс

1.4.1.25. Y y [waɪ] уай

1.4.1.26. Z z [zɛd], [ziː] зед, зи

1.4.1.27. Гласные

1.4.1.27.1. A, E, I, O, U, Y

1.4.1.28. Согласные

1.4.1.28.1. B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Z

1.4.2. Звуки

1.4.2.1. Согласные

1.4.2.1.1. [l] Соответствует русскому звуку л Lab [læb]

1.4.2.1.2. [p] Соответствует русскому звуку п Sleep [sli:p]

1.4.2.1.3. [b] Соответствует русскому звуку б Bush [buʃ]

1.4.2.1.4. [t] Соответствует русскому звуку т Point [pɔint]

1.4.2.1.5. [d] Соответствует русскому звуку д Drama ['dra:mə]

1.4.2.1.6. [m] Соответствует русскому звуку м Time [taim]

1.4.2.1.7. [k] Соответствует русскому звуку к Kiss [kis]

1.4.2.1.8. [g] Соответствует русскому звуку г Goal [gəul]

1.4.2.1.9. [n] Соответствует русскому звуку н Snake [sneik]

1.4.2.1.10. [ʃ] Соответствует русскому звуку ш Motion ['məuʃ(ə)n]

1.4.2.1.11. [f] Соответствует русскому звуку ф Office ['ɔfis]

1.4.2.1.12. [v] Соответствует русскому звуку в Nerve [nз:v]

1.4.2.1.13. [s] Соответствует русскому звуку с Peace [pi:s]

1.4.2.1.14. [z] Соответствует русскому звуку з Museum [mju:'zi:əm]

1.4.2.1.15. [ʒ] Соответствует русскому звуку ж Joy [dʒɔi]

1.4.2.1.16. [tʃ] Соответствует русскому звуку ч Inch [intʃ]

1.4.2.1.17. [dʒ] Соответствует русскому звуку дж Joke [dʒəuk]

1.4.2.1.18. [r] Напоминает звук р Red [red]

1.4.2.1.19. [h] Напоминает звук х Hammer ['hæmə]

1.4.2.1.20. [j] Напоминает звук й -

1.4.2.1.21. [ju:] Напоминает звук ю View ['vju:]

1.4.2.1.22. [je] Напоминает звук е Yellow ['jeləu]

1.4.2.1.23. [jз] Напоминает звук ё Year [jз:]

1.4.2.1.24. [jʌ] Напоминает звук я Young [jʌŋ]

1.4.2.1.25. [w] Звук у или в Water ['wɔ:tə]

1.4.2.1.26. [ŋ] Отдалённо напоминает звук н King [kiŋ]

1.4.2.1.27. [θ] Средний звук между с и ф Thin [θin]

1.4.2.1.28. [ð] Средний звук между з и в Brother [brʌðə]

1.4.2.2. Гласные

1.4.2.2.1. [a:] Соответствует долгому звуку а Last [la:st]

1.4.2.2.2. [æ] Средний звук между а и э Ally ['ælai]

1.4.2.2.3. [i:] Напоминает протяжный звук и Key [ki:]

1.4.2.2.4. [i] Напоминает краткий звук и Bullet ['bulit]

1.4.2.2.5. [e] Напоминает звук э Blame [bleim]

1.4.2.2.6. [ɔ] Краткий звук о Pot [pɔt]

1.4.2.2.7. [ɔ:] Напоминает протяжный звук о Torment ['tɔ:ment]

1.4.2.2.8. [ə:] Средний звук между о и э, напоминает ё -

1.4.2.2.9. [ə] Неясный, неударный звук, похожий на э Pole [pəul]

1.4.2.2.10. [ʌ] Напоминает звук а Funny ['fʌni]

1.4.2.2.11. [з] Напоминает звук ё Girl [gз:l]

1.4.2.2.12. [u] Краткий звук у Cook [kuk]

1.4.2.2.13. [u:] Напоминает протяжный звук у School [sku:l]

1.4.2.2.14. [ai] Напоминает звук ай Slide [slaid]

1.4.2.2.15. [ei] Напоминает звук эй Sale [seil]

1.4.2.2.16. [ɔi] Напоминает звук ой Toy [tɔi]

1.4.2.2.17. [au] Напоминает звук ау Now [nau]

1.4.2.2.18. [əu] Напоминает звук оу So [səu]

1.4.2.2.19. [iə] Напоминает звук иэ Wire ['waiə]

1.4.2.2.20. [uə] Напоминает звук уэ Tower ['tauə]

1.4.2.2.21. [ɛə] Отдалённо напоминает звук эа Dare [dɛə]

2. Tenses (Времена)

2.1. Future (Будущее)

2.1.1. Planned (is, ing)

2.1.1.1. Active

2.1.1.1.1. I am going to wash the car

2.1.1.1.2. I am not going to wash the car

2.1.1.1.3. Are you going to wash the car?

2.1.1.2. Passive

2.1.1.2.1. The car is going to be washed

2.1.1.2.2. The car is not going to be washed

2.1.1.2.3. Is the car going to be washed?

2.1.2. Unplanned (will)

2.1.2.1. Active

2.1.2.1.1. I will wash the car

2.1.2.1.2. I will not (won't) wash the car

2.1.2.1.3. Will you wash the car?

2.1.2.2. Passive

2.1.2.2.1. The car will be washed

2.1.2.2.2. The car will not (won't) be washed

2.1.2.2.3. Will the car be washed?

2.1.3. Perfect

2.1.3.1. Simple (will, have, ed)

2.1.3.1.1. Active

2.1.3.1.2. Passive

2.1.3.2. Continuous (will, have, ed, ing)

2.1.3.2.1. I will have been washing that car for five years this June

2.1.3.2.2. I will not have been washing that car for five years in March

2.1.3.2.3. Will you have been washing that car for five years in March?

2.1.3.2.4. Emphasis the length of time it's been done

2.2. Present (Настоящее )

2.2.1. Simple ("s" in plural)

2.2.1.1. A: He washes the car

2.2.1.2. N: He does not wash the car

2.2.1.3. Q: Does he wash the car?

2.2.1.4. Passive

2.2.1.4.1. A: It is washed

2.2.1.4.2. N: It's not washed

2.2.1.4.3. Q: Is it washed?

2.2.2. Continuonus (is, ing)

2.2.2.1. A: He is washing it

2.2.2.2. N: He is not washing it

2.2.2.3. Q: Is he washing it?

2.2.2.4. Passive

2.2.2.4.1. A: It's being washed

2.2.2.4.2. N: It is not being washed

2.2.3. Perfect (has, ed)

2.2.3.1. Simple

2.2.3.1.1. A: He has washed it

2.2.3.1.2. N: He has not washed it

2.2.3.1.3. Q: Has he washed it

2.2.3.1.4. Passive

2.2.3.2. Continuous

2.2.3.2.1. Not exist

2.3. Past (Прошлое)

2.3.1. Simple (ed)

2.3.1.1. Active

2.3.1.1.1. He washed it

2.3.1.1.2. He did not wash it

2.3.1.1.3. Did he washed it?

2.3.1.2. Passive

2.3.1.2.1. It was washed

2.3.1.2.2. It was not washed

2.3.1.2.3. Was it washed?

2.3.2. Continious (ed, ing)

2.3.2.1. Active

2.3.2.1.1. He was washing the car

2.3.2.1.2. He was not washing the car

2.3.2.1.3. Was he washing the car?

2.3.2.2. Passive

2.3.2.2.1. It was being washed

2.3.2.2.2. It was not being washed

2.3.2.2.3. Was it been washed?

2.3.3. Perfect

2.3.3.1. Simple (had, ed)

2.3.3.1.1. Active

2.3.3.1.2. Passive

2.3.3.2. Continious (had, ed, ing)

2.3.3.2.1. It had been raining

2.3.3.2.2. It had not been raining

2.3.3.2.3. Had it been raining?

3. Parts of sentence (Части предложения)

3.1. Verb (Глагол)

3.1.1. Definition: Action or state

3.1.1.1. like work play go swim

3.1.1.1.1. "English club is a web site. I LIKE english club"

3.1.2. Auxiliary Verbs (Вспомогательные глаголы)

3.1.2.1. be do have will

3.1.2.1.1. Auxiliary Verbs are the verbs are followed by another verb (the full verb)

3.1.3. Modals (Модальные глаголы)

3.1.3.1. Can

3.1.3.1.1. I can wash the car

3.1.3.1.2. I can not wash the car

3.1.3.1.3. Can you wash the car?

3.1.3.1.4. (ability to do sth. in the present)

3.1.3.2. Could

3.1.3.2.1. I could wash the car

3.1.3.2.2. I could not wash the car

3.1.3.2.3. Could you wash the car?

3.1.3.2.4. (ability to do sth. in the past)

3.1.3.3. May

3.1.3.3.1. I may wash the car

3.1.3.3.2. I may not wash the car

3.1.3.3.3. May i wash the car (Permission)?

3.1.3.3.4. (possibility, permission)

3.1.3.4. Might

3.1.3.4.1. I might wash the car

3.1.3.4.2. I might not wash the car? (Permission)

3.1.3.4.3. I might wash the car

3.1.3.4.4. I might wash the car

3.1.3.4.5. (possibility (less possible than may, hesitate offer))

3.1.3.5. Must (Have)

3.1.3.5.1. I must wash the car

3.1.3.5.2. I must not wash the car

3.1.3.5.3. Must i washed the car? (Permission not to do it?)

3.1.3.5.4. (force, necessity)

3.1.3.6. Should (Ought to)

3.1.3.6.1. I ought to wash the car

3.1.3.6.2. I ought not wash the car

3.1.3.6.3. Not normally used as a qustion

3.1.3.6.4. (advice, obligation)

3.1.3.7. Could

3.1.3.7.1. I could go to the cinema

3.1.3.7.2. I could not go to the cinema

3.1.3.7.3. Could you go to the cinema

3.1.3.7.4. (ability to do sth. in the past)

3.1.3.8. Would

3.1.3.8.1. Sometimes he would bring me some flowers.

3.1.3.8.2. Would you shut the door, please?

3.1.3.8.3. (wish, request, habits in the past )

3.1.3.9. Will (Shall)

3.1.3.9.1. I will stop smoking.

3.1.3.9.2. Will you please shut the door?

3.1.3.9.3. (wish, request, demand, order (less polite than would))

3.1.4. Gerund (Герундий)

3.1.4.1. as the subject of a clause

3.1.4.1.1. Cycling is good for your health.

3.1.4.2. after certain adjectives

3.1.4.2.1. afraid of angry about / at bad at busy clever at crazy about disappointed about excited about famous for fond of glad about good at impressed by interested in keen on like near proud of sick of sorry about tired of worried about worth

3.1.4.3. after certain prepositions

3.1.4.3.1. about (in 'how/what about') after apart from because of before by in in spite of instead of on without

3.1.4.4. after certain verbs

3.1.4.4.1. admit advise allow appreciate avoid can't help can't stand consider delay deny dislike enjoy escape fancy finish go (in go swimming) imagine involve keep mention mind miss permit postpone practise reject resist risk stop suggest understand waste time / mone

3.1.4.5. after certain verbs with prepositions

3.1.4.5.1. accuse of adjust to agree with apologize for approve of ask about ask for begin by believe in be used to blame for care for carry on complain about concentrate on congratulate on consist of cope with decide against decide for depend on die of dream about / of escape from feel like forgive for give up insist on keep on look forward to object to pay for prevent sb. from protect from put off rely on spend money on spend time on succeed in suspect of take part in talk about / of thank for think of use for warn against worry about

3.1.4.6. after certain nouns

3.1.4.6.1. advantage of alternative of chance of choice between danger of difficulty in doubt about experience in fun hope of idea of interest in opportunity of place for pleasure in point in possibility of problem reason for trouble trouble in use way of waste of money waste of time

3.1.4.7. Words followed either by Infinitive or Ing-Form

3.1.4.7.1. same meaning

3.1.4.7.2. same meaning but different use

3.1.4.7.3. different meaning

3.1.4.7.4. infinitive or present participle

3.2. Noun (Существительное)

3.2.1. Thing or person /

3.2.1.1. dog town London teacher John

3.2.1.1.1. "This is my DOG. He lives in my HOUSE. We live in LONDON"

3.2.2. Article

3.2.2.1. (a)

3.2.2.1.1. if the first letter of the following word is pronounced like a consonant

3.2.2.2. ( an)

3.2.2.2.1. if the first letter of the following word is pronounced like a vowel

3.2.3. Plural

3.2.3.1. (+ s) singular form

3.2.3.1.1. a car - two cars

3.2.3.2. (+ es) after s, ch, x, z

3.2.3.2.1. two boxes

3.2.3.3. y after a vowel is not changed

3.2.3.3.1. a boy - two boys

3.2.3.4. y after a consonant is changed to ie before the plural s

3.2.3.4.1. a city - two cities

3.2.4. Possessive Case of Nouns

3.2.4.1. People

3.2.4.1.1. adding ('s)

3.2.4.2. Things

3.2.4.2.1. ( of the )

3.3. Adjective (Прилагательное)

3.3.1. Describes a noun

3.3.1.1. a/an the some good red interesting

3.3.1.1.1. "I have TWO dogs. My dogs are BIG. I like BIG dogs"

3.3.2. Forms

3.3.2.1. (-er/-est)

3.3.2.1.1. "clean - cleaner - cleanest"

3.3.2.1.2. "clever - cleverer - cleverest"

3.3.2.1.3. Exceptions

3.3.2.2. (more/most)

3.3.2.2.1. "difficult - more difficult - most difficult"

3.3.2.3. irregular comparisons

3.3.2.3.1. good - better - best bad / ill - worse - worst little (amount) - less - least little (size) - smaller - smallest much / many - more - most far (place + time) - further - furthest far (place) - farther - farthest late (time) - later - latest late (order) - latter - last near (order) - - - next old (people and things) - older - oldest old (people) - elder - eldest well - better - best badly - worse - worst ill - worse - worst little - less - least much - more - most far (place + time) - further - furthest far (place) - farther - farthest late (time) - later - latest

3.4. Adverb (Наречие)

3.4.1. Describes a verb, adjective or adverb )

3.4.1.1. quickly silently well badly very really

3.4.1.1.1. "My dog eats QUICKLY. When he is very hungry, he eats really quickly"

3.4.2. Forms from Adjective

3.4.2.1. (-ly)

3.4.2.1.1. slow → slowly

3.4.2.1.2. Exceptions

3.4.2.2. (-ally)

3.4.2.2.1. "fantastic → fantastically"

3.4.2.3. (in a … way / manner)

3.4.2.3.1. "friendly → in a friendly way"

3.4.2.3.2. "friendly → in a friendly manner"

3.4.2.4. adverb with similar meaning

3.4.2.4.1. "likely → probably"

3.4.2.5. Exceptions

3.4.2.5.1. adjective - adverb (meaning) - adverb (meaning) good - well -   difficult - with difficulty -   public - publicly -   deep - deep (place) - deeply (feeling) direct - direct - directly (=soon) hard - hard - hardly (=seldom) high - high (place) - highly (figurative) late - late - lately (=recently) most - most - mostly (=usually) near - near - nearly (=almost) pretty - pretty (=rather) - prettily short - short - shortly (=soon)

3.4.3. Relative adverbs

3.4.3.1. when (refers to a time expression)

3.4.3.1.1. the day when we met him

3.4.3.2. where (refers to a place)

3.4.3.2.1. the place where we met him

3.4.3.3. why (refers to a reason)

3.4.3.3.1. the reason why we met him

3.5. Pronoun (Местоимения)

3.5.1. Replaces a noun

3.5.1.1. I you he she some

3.5.1.1.1. "Tara is Indian. SHE is beautiful"

3.5.2. Subject Form - Object Form - Possessive Adjective - Possessive Pronoun - Reflexive

3.5.2.1. I - me - my - mine - myself

3.5.2.2. you - you - your - yours - yourself

3.5.2.3. he - him - his - his - himself

3.5.2.4. she - her - her - hers - herself

3.5.2.5. it - it - its - its - itself

3.5.2.6. we - us - our - ours - ourselves

3.5.2.7. you - you - your - yours - yourselves

3.5.2.8. they - them - their - theirs - themselves

3.5.3. Relative pronouns

3.5.3.1. who (subject or object pronoun for people)

3.5.3.1.1. I told you about the woman who lives next door.

3.5.3.2. which (subject or object pronoun for animals and things)

3.5.3.2.1. Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?

3.5.3.3. which (referring to a whole sentence)

3.5.3.3.1. He couldn’t read which surprised me.

3.5.3.4. whose (possession for people animals and things)

3.5.3.4.1. Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?

3.5.3.5. whom (object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses)

3.5.3.5.1. I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.

3.5.3.6. that (subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses)

3.5.3.6.1. I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

3.6. Preposition (Предлог)

3.6.1. Links a noun to another word

3.6.1.1. to at after on but

3.6.1.1.1. "We went TO school on Monday"

3.6.2. Prepositions – Time

3.6.2.1. on

3.6.2.1.1. days of the week

3.6.2.2. in

3.6.2.2.1. months / seasons

3.6.2.2.2. time of day

3.6.2.2.3. year

3.6.2.2.4. after a certain period of time (when?)

3.6.2.3. at

3.6.2.3.1. for night

3.6.2.3.2. for weekend

3.6.2.3.3. a certain point of time (when?)

3.6.2.4. since

3.6.2.4.1. from a certain point of time (past till now)

3.6.2.5. for

3.6.2.5.1. over a certain period of time (past till now)

3.6.2.6. ago

3.6.2.6.1. a certain time in the past

3.6.2.7. before

3.6.2.7.1. earlier than a certain point of time

3.6.2.8. to

3.6.2.8.1. telling the time

3.6.2.9. past

3.6.2.9.1. telling the time

3.6.2.10. to / till / until

3.6.2.10.1. marking the beginning and end of a period of time

3.6.2.11. till / until

3.6.2.11.1. in the sense of how long something is going to last

3.6.2.12. by

3.6.2.12.1. in the sense of at the latest

3.6.2.12.2. up to a certain time

3.6.3. Prepositions – Place and other

3.6.3.1. in

3.6.3.1.1. room, building, street, town, country

3.6.3.1.2. book, paper etc.

3.6.3.1.3. car, taxi

3.6.3.1.4. picture, world

3.6.3.2. at

3.6.3.2.1. meaning next to, by an object

3.6.3.2.2. for table

3.6.3.2.3. for events

3.6.3.2.4. place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work)

3.6.3.2.5. for age

3.6.3.3. on

3.6.3.3.1. attached

3.6.3.3.2. for a place with a river

3.6.3.3.3. being on a surface

3.6.3.3.4. for a certain side (left, right)

3.6.3.3.5. for a floor in a house

3.6.3.3.6. for public transport

3.6.3.3.7. for television, radio

3.6.3.3.8. walking or riding on horseback

3.6.3.3.9. entering a public transport vehicle

3.6.3.4. by, next to, beside

3.6.3.4.1. left or right of somebody or something

3.6.3.5. under

3.6.3.5.1. on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else

3.6.3.6. below

3.6.3.6.1. lower than something else but above ground

3.6.3.7. over

3.6.3.7.1. covered by something else

3.6.3.7.2. meaning more than

3.6.3.7.3. getting to the other side (also across)

3.6.3.7.4. overcoming an obstacle

3.6.3.8. above

3.6.3.8.1. higher than something else, but not directly over it

3.6.3.9. across

3.6.3.9.1. getting to the other side (also over)

3.6.3.9.2. getting to the other side

3.6.3.10. through

3.6.3.10.1. something with limits on top, bottom and the sides

3.6.3.11. to

3.6.3.11.1. movement to person or building

3.6.3.11.2. movement to a place or movement to a place or country

3.6.3.11.3. for bed

3.6.3.12. into

3.6.3.12.1. enter a room / a building

3.6.3.13. towards

3.6.3.13.1. movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)

3.6.3.14. onto

3.6.3.14.1. movement to the top of something

3.6.3.15. of

3.6.3.15.1. who/what does it belong to

3.6.3.15.2. what does it show

3.6.3.15.3. leaving a public transport vehicle

3.6.3.16. who made it

3.6.3.16.1. a book by Mark Twain

3.6.3.17. out of

3.6.3.17.1. leaving a car / Taxi

3.6.3.18. by

3.6.3.18.1. rise or fall of something

3.6.3.18.2. travelling (other than walking or horseriding)

3.6.3.19. about

3.6.3.19.1. for topics, meaning what about

3.6.3.20. from

3.6.3.20.1. in the sense of where from

3.6.3.20.2. who gave it

3.7. Conjunction (Союз)

3.7.1. Joins clauses or sentences or words

3.7.1.1. and but when

3.7.1.1.1. "I like dogs AND I like cats. I like cats AND dogs"

3.8. Interjection (Восклицание)

3.8.1. Short exclamation, sometimes inserted into a sentence

3.8.1.1. oh! ouch! hi! well

3.8.1.1.1. "OUCH! That hurts! HI! How are you? WELL, I don't know"

3.9. Articles (Артикль)

3.9.1. a/an (Неопределенны)

3.9.1.1. В том случае, когда предмет нам заранее не известен, при первом упоминании

3.9.1.1.1. I have got a car. The car is red.

3.9.2. the (Определенный)

3.9.2.1. Предмет нам известен заранее, которые выделяются из ряда вещей. Когда мы говорим о чем-то конкретном. Такое часто происходит при повторном упоминании:

3.9.2.1.1. Bob has got a car and a bike. The car is green and the bike is blue.

3.9.2.2. Уникальные существительные

3.9.2.2.1. the sun, the Earth

3.9.2.3. С именами, названиями, званиями

3.9.2.3.1. (the United Nations), (the Alps)

3.9.2.3.2. the guitar, the salsa

3.9.2.3.3. the Queen, the President

3.9.2.4. Сравнительными степенями, периодами

3.9.2.4.1. the best, the last

3.10. Топ 500

4. Sentence structure (Структура предложения)

4.1. Word Order (Порядок слов)

4.1.1. Affirmative

4.1.1.1. Кто (что)? + Что делает? + Кого (чего)? или (и) Кому (Чему)? + Как? + Где? + Когда?

4.1.1.1.1. Он + раскажет+ тебе + историю + очень откровенно + в школе + завтра

4.1.1.2. Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object + Obsticles + Place + Time

4.1.1.2.1. He + will tell + you + the story + very frankly + at school + tomorrow

4.2. Infinitive (Инфинитив)

4.2.1. with "to"

4.2.1.1. be seem appear

4.2.1.1.1. "To know you is to love you."

4.2.1.2. agree aim appear arrange attempt (uaual verbs....)

4.2.1.2.1. He wants to swim

4.2.2. without "to"

4.2.2.1. had better would rather would sooner why not why should I/you/… [not]

4.2.2.1.1. Why not go to the cinema?

4.2.2.2. let make

4.2.2.2.1. He made her swim.

4.2.2.3. can dare (also with to) do help (also with to) let may must need (also with to) shall should will (modals...)

4.2.2.3.1. I can swim.

4.3. Conditional (Условные предложения)

4.3.1. Conditional Sentences Type I (likely) (Present: Simple, Continuous, Perfect, Improbable)

4.3.1.1. "If the book is interesting, …(Simple Present)

4.3.1.1.1. …I will buy it" ( Future)

4.3.1.1.2. …buy it" (Imperative)

4.3.1.1.3. …you can buy it." (Modal Auxiliary)

4.3.1.2. "If he is snoring, …(Present Continuous)

4.3.1.2.1. …I will wake him up." (Future)

4.3.1.2.2. …wake him up." (Imperative)

4.3.1.2.3. …you can wake him up." (Modal Auxiliary)

4.3.1.3. "If he has moved into his new flat, …(Present Perfect)

4.3.1.3.1. …we will visit him. (Future)

4.3.1.3.2. …visit him. (Imperative)

4.3.1.3.3. …we can visit him. (Modal Auxiliary)

4.3.1.4. "If he gets what he wants, … (Present Simple)

4.3.1.4.1. …he is very nice. (Simple Present)

4.3.1.5. "If she should win this race, … (Improbable = should + Infinitive)

4.3.1.5.1. …I will congratulate her.

4.3.1.5.2. …congratulate her.

4.3.1.5.3. …we can congratulate her.

4.3.2. Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely) (Past Simple)

4.3.2.1. If I had a lot of money, …

4.3.2.1.1. …I would travel around the world

4.3.2.2. If I knew him, …

4.3.2.2.1. …I would have said hello

4.3.3. Conditional Sentences Type II (impossible) (Past Perfect)

4.3.3.1. If I had known it, …

4.3.3.1.1. …I would not be here now (Present Simple + would)

4.3.3.2. If he had learned for the test, …

4.3.3.2.1. …he would not have failed it (Present Perfect + would)

4.4. Question Tags (Разделительные вопросы)

4.4.1. positive main clause → negative question tag

4.4.1.1. You are Tom, aren’t you?

4.4.2. negative main clause → positive question tag

4.4.2.1. He isn’t Joe, is he?

4.4.3. main clause with auxiliary verb → use auxiliary verb in question tag

5. You’ve got a car, haven’t you?