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Kepner-Tregoe® (KT) Problem Solving and Decision Making (PSDM) study guide mind map by Mind Map: Kepner-Tregoe® (KT) Problem Solving and
Decision Making (PSDM) study guide mind
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Kepner-Tregoe® (KT) Problem Solving and Decision Making (PSDM) study guide mind map

Kepner-Tregoe, Kepner Tregoe logo, KT, K-T, eThink, eThink logo, Action Tracker, Analytic Trouble Shooting, Breakaway Organization, Engineering the Performance System, KT Memory Bank, KTConnects, Managing Involvement, Process Application Kit, Process Checker, Process Coach, Process Consultant, Project Logic, SAPADAPPADO, Sharpener, Driving Force and other marks, are trademarks or registered trademarks of Kepner-Tregoe, Inc. in the United States and other countries. Trademarks are properties of the holders, who are not affiliated with mind map author.

Kepner-Tregoe® deals with patterns of thinking, response, and behavior developed around accumulating answers to 4 basic questions:

What's going on?

Situation Appraisal process

Why did this happen?

Problem Analysis process

Which course of action should we take?

Decision Analysis process

What lies ahead?

Potential Problem / Opportunity Analysis process

Kepner-Tregoe Processes (4)

1. Situation Appraisal (SA)

What is it?, Situation Appraisal is a process that reveals all the aspects of a situation and their relative priority. It then determines what different courses of action are needed and who needs to be involved for effective resolution, Almost any situation requiring effective action will benefits from the application of Situation Appraisal, A systematic process for planning concern resolution, WHY?, To sort out priority concerns, Has 4 steps, 1. Identify Concerns, has 2 substeps, 2. Set Priority, has 3 substeps, 3. Plan Next Steps, has 1 substep, 4. Plan Involvement, has 1 substep

Why do it?, To avoid being too general, To help clarify issues, find out which is important and involve the right people in next steps, In many situations, a number of problems arise at the same time., In some cases they are interconnected; in other cases, they are totally unrelated, and it is “just one of those days.”, Situation Analysis can prove useful in helping to decide which problem receives the highest priority.

1. Identify Concerns, 1. Identify the theme, Identifying theme ans cope of the appraisal., WHY?, To determine scope of work, 2. List threats and opportunities, Identifying concerns (positive and nagative) that impact the customer and required action to resolve, WHY?, To begin to understand customer issues, questions to be asked, What upcoming changes, future plans activates to anticipate?, What decisions need to be made?, What decisions are occuring?, What needs out attention?, What plans should be implemented?, What opportunities exist?, What bothers us about ... ?, 3. Separate and clarify concerns, Ensure each concern is clear and specific., Restating unclear concerns into specific, actionable elements to minimize / alleviate, WHY?, To understand all critical issues first, fast and accurately BEFORE taking action, Over-generlalizations, Assumed cause-effect relationships, Reality confusion, Rationality overloaded by feelings, Being overwhelmed by the scope of the mess, questions to be asked, What concerns are part of this?, What exactly do we mean by ... ?, What exactly is ... ?, What else concerns us about ... ?, What evidence do we have ... ?, What different deviations, decisions, or plans are part of this concern?

2. Set Priority, Determine which concerns should be worked on first by comparing their impact on customers, cost, safety, etc., and specific deadlines for resolution, WHY?, To know where to use resources for the greatest gain, 1. Consider the current impact, questions to be asked, What is the current impact on people, safety, cost, customers / stakeholders, productivity, reputation, etc? (seriousness), What evidence do you have?, Which concern is most serious?, 2. Consider the future impact, questions to be asked, If left unresolved, how and when will the seriousness change?, What evidence do you have?, Which concern is getting worse quicker?, 3. Consider the time frame, questions to be asked, What is the deadline? When do we need to start? (urgency), When would resolution become difficult, expensive, impossible, or meaningless?, What evidence do you have?, Which concern will be the hardest to resolve later?

3. Plan Next Steps, 1. Determine resolution approach, Determine the type and amount of analysis needed to resolve each concern., WHY?, To ensure effective and efficient use of analysis, questions to be asked, Do we have a deviation? Is cause unknown? Do we need to know the cause?, Problem Analysis, to find cause, Do we need to simply make a choice?, Decision Analysis, to make choise, Do we have an Action or Plan to protect / enhance?, Potential Problem / Opportunity Analysis, to manage risk or promote opportunities, Do we need further clarification?, Situation Appraisal, to separate and clarify concerns

4. Plan Involvement, 1. Determine help needed, Assigning responsibility (required involvement for information, analysis, commitment, implementation, approval) and scheduling next steps, WHY?, To determine who does how much by when, questions to be asked, Who needs to do what, and by when?

2. Problem Analysis (PA)

What is it?, Problem Analysis is a process for gathering and analyzing just the information needed to find and correct the true cause of a problem, Any performance that is poorer than expected can be addressed by Problem Analysis, A systematic process for analysing problem and finding root cause, WHY?, To control a problem, Has 4 steps, 1. Describe Problem, has 2 substeps, 2. Identify Possible Causes, has 2 substeps, 3. Evaluate Possible Causes, has 2 substeps, 4. Confirm and Verify the Root Cause, has 1 substep

Why do it?, To avoid wasting resources like time, money and effort in jumping to a cause based on a hunch, previous history or a shot gun approach.

1. Describe Problem, 1. State the problem, questions to be asked, What is wrong with what? (object + deviation), What object (or group of objects) has the deviation?, What deviation does it have?, What do we see, hear, feel, taste, or smell that tells us there is a deviation?, 2. Specify the problem, questions to be asked, In a series of IS and IS NOT questions:, WHAT - Identity, Identify the object with the deviation, Identify the deviation on the object, WHERE - Location, locate the object with the deviation on a map / diagram / layout / etc., locate the deviation on the object, WHEN - Timing, Identify a specific point when we first knew we had a problem, Understand the frequency of the problem, Identify specific functional or operational conditions under which the deviation occurs, History / lifecycle - for example, how long had the SW been used before the problem arose, EXTENT - Size, Determine the magnitude and direction the problem is headed, Areas of Extent:, How many objects have the deviation, What is the size of a single deviation, How many deviations are on an object, What is the trend?

2. Identify Possible Causes, 1. From knowledge and experience, Use knowledge and experience to develop possible cause statements, questions to be asked, From experience, what could have caused the deviation?, 2. Look for distinctions and changes, Use distinctions and changes to develop possible cause statements, questions to be asked, What is unique about each IS compared to its NOT?, What is different, odd, special, or unique about an IS compared to an IS NOT?, What was changed in, on, around, or about each distinction?, When did the change occur?, How could each change have caused this deviation?

3. Evaluate Possible Causes, 1. Test possible causes, Test Possible causes against all IS and IS NOT specification, WHY?, To get rid of causes that do not make sense, questions to be asked, If _______ is the true cause of ________, how does it explain both the IS and IS NOT information?, What assumptions have to be made?, 2. Determine the most probable cause, Determine the cause that is the most probable, WHY?, To pick the possible cause to verify first, questions to be asked, Which possible cause best explains the IS and IS NOT information?, Which possible cause has the fewest, simplest, and most reasonable assumptions?

4. Confirm the Root Cause, 1. Verify assumptions, observe, experiment or try a fix and monitor, 4 main ways to verify, FACTUAL - Check assumptions, OBSERVE - Go look, RESEARCH - Experiment, RESULTS - Try a fix and monitor, questions to be asked, What can be done to verify any assumptions made?, How can this cause be observed at work?, How can we demonstrate the cause-and-effect relationship?, When corrective action is taken, how will results be checked?

3. Decision Analysis (DA)

What is it?, Decision Analysis is a process that marries logic, expertise, creativity and factual information to guide individuals and groups to sound choices, A systematic process for making a choice, A systematic process for making a choice to balance benefits and risks, WHY?, To balance benefits and risks, Has 4 steps, 1. Clarify Purpose, has 4 substeps, 2. Evaluate Alternatives, has 4 substeps, 3. Assess Risks, has 1 substep, 4. Make Decision, has 1 substep

Why do it?, To make the best balanced choice between your alternatives and to make sure that everyone understands your objectives and selection process.

1. Clarify Purpose, 1. State the decision, Short statement (in one sentence) describing the intended result of a decision, WHY?, To keep decision makers on track, Formulate in one sentence the desired end result and key modifiers, questions to be asked, What is the decision?, What do we need to decide?, 2. Develop objectives, Identifying criteria that will influence the choice, WHY?, To help you evaluate alternatives fully, Formulate specific, measurable criteria, questions to be asked, What resources or restrictions influence the choice?, What short and long term results or benefits do we want?, What do we need to consider when making the choice?, 3. Classify objectives into MUSTs and WANTs, Determining the role objetives will play in the decision, WHY?, To be clear about what is mandatory and what is desired, Identify MUSTs criteria with clear and mesurable limits, Determine which MUSTs should also be reflected as WANTs, questions to be asked, Is this objective mandatory, measurable (with limit) and realistic?, 4. Weigh the WANTs, Determine the most important WANT and give it a weight of 10, Weight the other WANTs in relation to it, Assigning relative values to WANT objectives, WHY?, To show how much each WANT will influence the choice, questions to be asked, What are the relative weights of the objectives?, What is the relative importance of each WANT?

2. Evaluating Alternatives, 1. Generate alternatives, Create or identify possible options by making use of the objectives, experts and other resources, Identifying or creating possible choices, WHY?, To expand the number of choices and increase the chances of picking a winner, questions to be asked, What are alternatives to the decision?, 2. Screen alternatives through the MUSTs, Determining if alternatives meet the MUSTs, WHY?, To eliminate choices that do not meet minimum requirements, questions to be asked, Does this alternative meets the MUSTs?, How do the alternatives fit with the MUSTS?, 3 or 4, 3. Use knowledge and experience, Evaluating options based on judgement, WHY?, To determine which alternatives best satisfies each WANT objective, 4. Compare alternatives against the WANTs, Evaluating relative performance of alternatives, WHY?, To determine which alternatives create the most benefit, For each WANT, give the best scoring alternative a 10 and score the other alternatives in relation to it, Determine scores for alternatives, Multiply the score of the alternatives by the weight of the objectives and add up totals, Determine for each alternative the weighed scores, questions to be asked, To what degree do the alternatives satisfy the WANTs?, How do the alternatives fit with the WANTS?

3. Assess Risks, 1. Identify adverse consequences, Identifying future threats for best alternative(s), WHY?, To understand the risk of choosing an alternative, questions to be asked, What are the risks and their probability?, What are the consequences and their seriousness?, What are the adverse consequences?, 2. Assess the threat, Determine probability, seriousness for each risk, WHY?, To understand the risk

4. Make Decisions, 1. Make the best balanced choice, Selecting an alternative that best meets criteria with acceptable risks, WHY?, To commit to a choice, questions to be asked, What are the best balanced choices?

4. Potential Problem Analysis (PPA) / Potential Opportunity Analysis (POA)

What is it?, Potential Problem / Opportunity Analysis is a process that combines past experience and creative insights about the future to logically analyze and prepare for the risks and rewards that could occur, Any action, activity, project or progremme, will benefits from Potential Problem / Opportunity Analysis, Has 4 steps (in both versions), 1. Identify Potential Problems / Opportunities, has 3 substeps, 2. Identify Likely Causes, has 1 substep, 3. Take Preventive / Promoting Action, has 1 substep, 4. Plan Contigent / Capitalizing Action and Set Triggers, has 2 substeps

Why do it?, To avoid being reactive and to understand the key drivers of causes and how to prevent them.

for Problems (PPA), What is it?, A systematic process for protecting actions or plans, WHY?, To avoid reactive action, 1. Identify Potential Problems, 1. State the action, Stating the action and end result you wish to protect, WHY?, To focus on protecting a specific task, questions to be asked, What is the end result to be achieved?, What important tasks or actions need to be protected?, What actions need to be taken to reach the end result? Which of these are critical?, What are the potential actions?, 2. List potential problems, Identifying future undesirable deviations, WHY?, To anticipate and prepare for future problems, questions to be asked, When we do this, what could go wrong? (object + deviation), What problems could this action cause?, What are the potential problems?, 3 or 4, 3. Use knowledge and experience, Evaluating options based on judgement, WHY?, To determine which potential problem should we work on first?, 4. Assess the Threat, Use probability and seriousness to set priority, questions to be asked, 2. Identify Likely Causes, 1. Consider causes for the potential problem, Consider possible causes / factors for each priority potential problem., WHY?, To help prevent or reduce the threat, questions to be asked, What could cause the potential problem to occur?, What are the possible causes for the potential problem?, 3. Take Preventive Action, 1. Take actions to address likely causes, Attempting to keep likely causes from happening, WHY?, To reduce the probability that a future problem will occur, Plan specific actions to encourage likely causes, questions to be asked, How can we eliminate / reduce the chances of this likely cause happening?, What actions do we need to take to address likely causes?, 4. Plan Contigent Action and Set Triggers, 1. Prepare actions to reduce likely effects, Determining ways to minimize the impact of the potential problem, WHY?, To limit the damage if something does go wrong, Prepare actions to manage likely effects if a potential problems happens, questions to be asked, How will we know if problems occur and then deal with the effects?, What will we do if this potential problem happens?, What will minimize the effects if the potential problem happens?, 2. Set triggers for contingent actions, Establishing a feedback system to indicate that a potential problem has occurred, WHY?, To start a contingent action at the proper time, Set triggers that detect when a potential problem occurs and that also activate the contingent actions, questions to be asked, How will we know the potential problem has occurred?, What will activate each contingent action?, What triggers do we need to set for contingent actions?

for Opportunities (POA), What is it?, A systematic process for improving actions or plans, WHY?, To improve performence, 1. Identify Potential Opportunities, 1. State the action, Stating the action and end result you wish to improve, WHY?, To focus on improving a specific task, questions to be asked, What is the end result to be achieved?, What important tasks or actions need to be improved?, What actions need to be taken to reach the end result? Which of these are critical?, What are the potential actions?, 2. List potential opportunities, Identifying future desirable deviations, WHY?, To anticipate and prepare for future opportunities, questions to be asked, When we do this, what could go better than expected? (object + deviation), What opportunities could this action cause?, What are the potential opportunities?, 3 or 4, 3. Use knowledge and experience, Evaluating options based on judgement, WHY?, To determine which potential opportunity should we work on first?, 4. Assess the benefits, Use probability and added value to set priority, questions to be asked, 2. Identify Likely Causes, 1. Consider causes for the potential opportunity, Consider possible causes for each priority potential opportunity., WHY?, To help expoint or improve the opportunity, questions to be asked, What could cause the potential opportunity to occur?, What are the possible causes for the potential opportunity?, 3. Take Promoting Action, 1. Take actions to encourage likely causes, Improving to keep likely causes from happening, WHY?, To increase the probability that a future opportunity will occur, Plan specific actions to encourage likely causes., questions to be asked, How can we ensure / increase the chances of this likely cause happening?, What actions do we need to take to encourage likely causes?, 4. Plan Capitalizing Action and Set Triggers, 1. Prepare actions to cnhance likely effects, Determining ways to maximize the impact of the potential opportunity, WHY?, To increase the impact if something does go good, Prepare actions to enhance likely effects if a potential opportunity happens., questions to be asked, How will we know if opportunity occur and then deal with the effects?, What will we do if this potential opportunity happens?, What will maximize the effects if the potential opportunity happens?, 2. Set triggers for capitalizing actions, Establishing a feedback system to indicate that a potential opportunity has occurred, WHY?, To start a contingent action at the proper time, Set triggers that detect when a potential opportunity occurs and that also activate the capitalizing actions., questions to be asked, How will we know the potential opportunity has occurred?, What will activate each contingent action?, What triggers do we need to set for capitalizing actions?

This freeware mind map was carefully hand crafted with passion and love for learning and constant improvement as well for promotion the Kepner-Tregoe® methodology and as a learning tool for candidates wanting to gain Kepner-Tregoe® qualification. (please share, like and give feedback - your feedback and comments are my main motivation for further elaboration. THX!)

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Kepner-Tregoe® (KT) Problem Solving and Decision Making (PSDM) methodology consists of: 4 Processes.

Kepner-Tregoe® (KT) Problem Solving and Decision Making (PSDM) - is a proven, step-by-step process for successfully solving problems, making good decisions, prioritizing issues, and analyzing potential risks and opportunities. For almost 60 years, these skills have equipped learners with the foundation of effective critical thinking.

Kepner-Tregoe, Inc. is a multinational management consulting and training services company headquartered in Princeton, New Jersey.

Founded in 1958 based on ground-breaking research on how people think, solve problems and make decisions, Princeton-based Kepner-Tregoe is dedicated to helping organizations achieve Operational Excellence by improving quality, increasing efficiency and reducing costs.

Kepner-Tregoe (KT) provides capability development and consulting solutions across the world to help build Thinking Organizations that resolve the most pressing issues with clarity and confidence.

Company is best known for their Rational Process technique, and together wrote the book "The Rational Manager" published in 1965 and "The New Rational Manager" published in 1981.

Interactive Kepner-Tregoe® Glossary

Interactive Kepner-Tregoe® Glossary

Kepner-Tregoe® Official publication

The New Rational Manager - An Updated Edition for a New World [2013]

ISBN-13: 978-0971562714

ISBN-10: 0971562717

Pages: 242

http://www.amazon.com/Rational-Manager-Charles-Higgins-Kepner/dp/0971562717