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Scrum study guide mind map by Mind Map: Scrum study guide mind map
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Scrum study guide mind map

Scrum Master Manifesto

First created at the Scrum Alliance Global Gathering London,

11-13 October 2011

12 ScrumMaster Pocket Principles

1. Dedicated Delivery Improver

2. Foster Continuous Improvement

3. Help Continuous Improvement

4. Empower Coach Deliver

5. Nurtures The Team

6. Transparent Team Helper

7. Commitment To Excellence

8. Empathetic Evangelistic Guide

9. Resistant Persistent Dedicated

10. Help the Team

11. Awareness Then Improvement

12. Agile Driving Force

Top 10 things a ScrumMaster usually forgets to focus on (but is not SOLELY responsible for) ...

1. Redefining career paths and goals to be more scrum focussed

2. Missing Product Backlog items

3. Team issues aren't being discussed because they are too uncomfortable

4. Appropriate balance between end-to-end system test and unit tests

5. Playing back the team's progress against the proposed release plan

6. All tests roll up into the continuous integration results

7. Team members realise the benefits of refactoring

8. Code is regularly peer reviewed

9. Pair programming is being utilised

10. Definition of done is being expanded

Roles (3)

Scrum Team

a.k.a. The Pigs

Product Owner, Strategic Thinking, Voice of business, Responsibilities, Owns, Owns the Product Backlog as she has to maximize the ROI of the Product, Creates and maintains the Product Backlog, Chooses what and when to release, Represents stakeholders and customers to the Development Team, Determines requirements priorities, Recommended skills, Tolerate and manage change effectively, Shift gears/change course quickly and easily, Decide and act without having the total picture, Tolerate situations where things are up in the air, Tolerate and be comfortable with risk and uncertainty, May be, A Product Manager, An executive, A personnel manager, A customer, May NOT be, A committee, The Scrum Master, This is a direct conflict of interest

Development Team, Responsibilities, Owns, Owns the Sprint Backlog and uses it to selforganize and deliver a potentially shippable product at the end of every Sprint, Creates the product Increment, Operates in a series of Sprints, Organizes itself and its work, Collaborates with Product Owner to optimize value, Characteristics, self-organizing / self-managing, "Engaged Teams Outperform Manipulated Teams", cross-functional, autonomical, intensely collaborative, ideally static, most successful with long-term, full-time membership, minimal to zero variations in team, ideally coolocated, most successful when located in one team room (particularly for the first few Sprints), recommended size 7 +/- 2 (commnication reasons), May be, Software Developer, Engineer, Tester / QA, Architect, Graphic Designer, Technical Writer, May also be, Business Analyst, Database Specialist, User Interaction Designer, Requirements Engineer

Scrum Master, Responsibilities, Owns, Owns the Scrum Framework and coaches every participant in the correct usage of the Scrum Ceremonies and Artifacts, as well as the role responsibilities, Enacts Scrum values, practices, and rules throughout the organization, Removing the barriers between the development Team and the Product Owner so that the Product Owner directly drives development., Teach the Product Owner how to maximize return on investment (ROI), and meet his/her objectives through Scrum., Improve the lives of the development Team by facilitating creativity and empowerment., Improve the productivity of the development Team in any way possible., Ensures the Scrum Team is functional and productive, Improve the engineering practices and tools so that each increment of functionality is potentially shippable., Provides guidance and support for the Scrum Team, Keep information about the Team’s progress up to date and visible to all parties., Recommended skills, Empathy, Inclusive, Trustworthy, Examine personal ethics, May be, A manager with appropriate servant-leader skills, A member of the Development Team, Selected by the Development Team, May NOT be, A Product Owner, This is a direct conflict of interest

Stakeholders (selected examples)

a.k.a. The Chickens

Business Owner / CEO




Rooster, a chicken how struts around offering very loud and useless, uninformed opinions / information / input

Any other ...

Scrum Events (4)

Scrum Meetings

Sprint Planning Meeting, Watch: Sprint Planning Meeting

Dailiy Scrum, Watch: Sprint Planning Meeting

Sprint Review Meeting / Demo, Watch: Sprint Planning Meeting

Sprint Retrospective Meeting, Watch: Sprint Planning Meeting

Agile Techniques (not just in Scrum but general selected techniques in Agile)

10 Intristic Motivators


Burn-Down Chart

Burn-Up Chart



Circles of Concern and Influence

Daily standups

Facilitated Workshops

Feature Progress Report

Five dysfunctions of a team

Future Backwards

Hapiness Door

Hapiness Index

Hapiness Metric

Kanban wall

Mad, Sad, Glad



Perfection Game


Planning Poker

Predictability Measure

Problem -> Goal -> Advantage

Product / Release Burndown Chart


Run your ass off

Speed dating

Sprinting / Timeboxing


Story points


Task boards

The Sailboat

Timeline / Emotion Graph


Scrum Products / Artifacts (3)

Product Backlog

What is it?, An ordered list of desirements, Potential features of the product, The single source of truth for what is planned in the product, Public and available, Has opportunities not commitments

Sprint Backlog

a.k.a. Team Backlog

Created by the Development Team during Sprint Planning

Often derived by examining and decomposing Product Backlog items (PBIs)

Might be a simple To Do list


What is it?, The Increment is the sum of all the Product Backlog items completed during the Sprint and all previous Sprints

Is usable and it works

Is potentially shippable

Must be DONE, As per Scrum Team standards, With no work remaining

Additional (outside Scrum)

Stories (type of PBIs), User Stories, by Client / User, Technical Stories, by Scrum Team, Spike Stories, by Scrum Team for research, All stories should in line with:, INVEST, 3C

Product Backlog Item (PBI), What is it?, Transparent unit of deliverable work, Contains clear acceptance criteria, May reference other artifacts like, Specifications, Mockups, Architecture Models, Sized appropriately, Valid Product Backlog Items, Behaviors, Bugs / Defects, Chores, Constraints, Desirements, Epics, Features definitions, Non-functional requirements, Prototypes, Use Cases, User actions or stories

Program Backlog, Multiple products, high level, Used only in bigger projects

Product / Release Burndown Chart

Sprint Burnup Chart

Sprint Burndown Chart

Sprint Task

This freeware mind map was carefully hand crafted with passion and love for learning and constant improvement as well for promotion the Scrum framework and as a learning tool for candidates wanting to gain Scrum PSM qualification. (please share, like and give feedback - your feedback and comments are my main motivation for further elaboration. THX!)

Questions / issues / errors? What do you think about my work? Your comments are highly appreciated. Please don't hesitate to contact me for :-) Mirosław Dąbrowski, Poland/Warsaw.


What is Scrum?

Scrum (n): A framework within which people can address complex problems, and productively and creatively deliver products of the highest possible value.

Scrum is dedicated for product management not project management

There is no Scrum methodology, no Agile methodology.

Scrum is:

One of the agile approaches


Extremely simple to understand

Extremely difficult to master

Watch: Introduction to Scrum

The Definitive Guide to Scrum

Scrum is a simple framework (not methodology) for effective team collaboration for building complex products (Scrum is not for project management). Scrum provides a small set of rules that create just enough structure for teams to be able to focus their innovation on solving what might otherwise be an insurmountable challenge.

Free Scrum Tools Online

Planning Poker

Velocity Range Calculator






Online Burndown Chart



Scrum Values (5)

The Scrum values are the values of self-organizing teams.

Many teams adopt Scrum practices without the Scrum values first ...


Each person is committed to the project's goals


Team members respect each other


Everyone is focused on the work

A team that’s truly focused is not asked to multitask.


Each team member is aware of the work everyone else is doing

The Daily Scrum is all about openness


Team members have the courage to stand up for the project

It’s easy to talk about courage, but it’s a lot harder to show it when it means saying no to your boss about an important feature.

Agile fundamentals (agile in general not Scrum fundamentals)

Agile Manifesto

17 It industry veterans met at Snowbird Resort on February 11-13 2001 and created Agile Manifesto, Introduced 4 Values and 12 Principles defining Agile for Software Development

disciplines that gave rise to the Agile Manifesto, Extreme Programming, SCRUM, Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM®), Adaptive Software Development, Crystal, Feature-Driven Development, Pragmatic Programming.

Agile Alliance

Agile currently is buzzword, a marketing term

Agile is like any other newly introduced popular concept. “… Everybody is talking about it. Very few are doing it and those who are, are doing it badly” (James O. Coplien)

Agile as a word by it's own simply means - nothing more than merketing term., there are so many Agile methodologies, Agile standards, Agile techniques, Agile tools, Agile good / best agile practices, Agile frameworks etc., that 'Agile' word itself is to general, see Agile World mind map

Agile is a generic description of a “Style of Working” and Philosophy., Not only style of working on project but rather culture in ENTIRE organization including also it's management level, clients and partners, ‘Agile Project Management’ is perhaps an oxymoron

The Agile Mindset, Values and Principles

4 Agile Value, 1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools, 2. Working software over comprehensive documentation, 3. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation, 4. Responding to change over following a plan

12 Agile Principles, 1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software., 2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage., 3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale., 4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project., 5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done., 6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation., 7. Working software is the primary measure of progress., 8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely., 9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility., 10. Simplicity - the art of maximizing the amount of work not done - is essential., 11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams., 12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.

The unlimited number of Agile Practices, The 'forest' of Agile Methods, Frameworks, Standards ..., see Agile World mind map, Being Agile vs Doing Agile

Agile is a umbrella term enclosing different methodologies, tools, techniques, practices and frameworks

In Agile community umbrella symbolizes different approaches in implementing Agile Manifesto but yet all from them are "Agilelish"

SCRUM, Lean, KANBAN, XP are not ‘Agile Project Management’ practices but rather team level practices, No Project Manager role, No project definition and etablished project / programme governance, ...

see Agile World mind map

Plan-Driven Projects vs. Change-driven Project Projects

Traditional (waterfall or sequential) Project Management metaphor, Railway metaphor, Moving forward, based on delivering predicted upfront requirements in accepted tolerances with limited tolerance to change, destination (final product specification) is known upfront and it will hardly change to any other destination, Big Design Up Front (BDUF), We are expecting from customer to know everything and precisely what he wants (and needs) at the very beginning in project lifecycle, Which is very often not possible, “People don’t know what they want until you show it to them” (Steve Jobs, 1955 - 2011), Changing course of train based on requirements, Change is under strict control, change management process / procedure, a.k.a. Plan-driven, build around paradigm of process, defined process control model, All work is understood before execution, Given a well-defined set of inputs, the same outputs are generated every time, Follow the pre-determined steps to get known results

Agile (iterative + incremental + adaptive) Project Management metaphor, Sailing metaphor, Embracing change of requirements, finding TRUE value for stakeholders by experimenting, testing, changing status quo., Enough Design Up Front (EDUF), Customers often does not now what they want and by changes in project we will better understand customer needs and deliver valuable solution, Adapting / changing course of sailing based on business TRUE business needs and priorities, which could be different than requirements, Change is natural and recommended, it a part of our lives and projects as well, a.k.a. Change-driven, build around paradigm of change / adaptation, empirical (adaptive) process control model, Frequent inspection and adaptation occurs as work proceeds, Processes are accepted as imperfectly defined, Outputs are often unpredictable and unrepeatable

Agile is best for complex projects

Simple (straightforward), Everything is known and predicatable

Complicated, More is known than unknown

Complex, More is unknown than known

Chaotic (unpredictable), Very little is known

See also Cynefin framework (by Dan Snowden), different view on Cynefin Framework,

Agile is about delivering "best possible value" not maximum possible value

VALUE is NOT the same as BENEFIT, Benefits, Benefit is about outputs, what describes a product, features, characteristics, requirements, Benefit is a objective, Benefits are derived from change initiatives (formally constituted projects and programmes), Benefits must contribute to an objective, Benefit is an advantage to stakeholders (internal or external to the organization), Benefit can be same for each stakeholder, Benefit can be financial and non financial, Benefit can be ..., tangible (easy to measure), non tangible (not so easy to measure), Benefit MUST be measurable and observable, Benefits are identifiable and quantifiable, Benefits SHOULD have baselines, Benefits SHOULD have priorities, Benefits types:, Emergent benefits, Unplanned benefits, Intermediate benefits, Mostly chain of intermediate benefits is linked to the end benefits, but in many cases intermediate benefits don’t automatically lead to the end benefits, End benefits, in general benefit = delivered requirements on time, on budget, within scope etc., WHAT is a product?, Value, Value is about outcomes, how products are used, what it does, functions, ways of using it, Value is subjective, Value is different for each stakeholder, Value can be measurable (if required but not natural to use such techniques in any Agile approach), e.g., Value Drivers, Value Profiles, Value Trees, Function Analysis System Technique (FAST), Value can be ..., tangible (easy to measure), non tangible (not so easy to measure), Values SHOULD have priorities, in general value = designed fit for purpose, as small as possible solution, WHY such product is needed?, HOW products are used?, WHO will be using product?

Agile is about focusing on business value / outcome, not strictly project plan / output

Focusing on value delivery not on fixed product definition or strict adherence to plan, That's why most Agile approaches define Project Vision

Agile respects the urgency and importance of priorities conveyed by the customer / user, most prominently by incremental delivery and flexible sequencing

Agile respects the common sense that all requirements can not be known at the outset, particularly when the outcomes are intangible and subject to an evolving understanding.

“People don’t know what they want until you show it to them” (Steve Jobs, 1955 - 2011)

Agile is about empowering people, treating them as intellectual individuals

“You have to learn to manage in situations where you don’t have command authority, where you are neither controlled nor controlling. That is the fundamental change.” (Peter F. Drucker)

Agile is about working closely and constantly (active two side collaboration) with customer throughout (including more than just feedback loops)

“Never write when you can talk. Never talk when you can nod. And never put anything in an email“ (Eliot Spitzer)

Agile is about change, constant change which leads to better value

“If a process is too unpredictable or too complicated for the planned, (predictive) approach, then the empirical approach (measure and adapt) is the method of choice“ (Ken Schwaber)

"Move Fast and Break Things" Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook

"Change is the only constant." Heraclitus, Greek philosopher

Agile thinking / approach often requires mind change and cultural shift

Not every organization is ready for that change!

"It is quite difficult for a highly structured and seniority-based organization to mobilize itself for change, especially under noncrisis conditions. this effort collapses somewhere in the hierarchy" (K. Imai, I. Nonaka, H. Takeuchi)

"Scrum exposes every cultural dysfunction that impedes developing software [...] It is not an approach or process that can be modified to fit the existing organizational culture; the culture must change to enable Scrum" (K. Schwaber, J. Sutherland)

“We cannot become what we need by remaining what we are.” (John C. Maxwell)

Why Agile Works?

1. The customer's representative is in the driver's seat

2. Quick reaction to the changing market and needs

3. More visibility

4. Ideal environment for development

5. Self-manged teams

6. Removes confusion and distraction

7. No fortune tellers; Plan as you go

8. Issues are less disruptive

9. Continuous improvement