reacting particles must collide
reacting particles must collide with the correct orientation
reacting particles must collide with enough energy to overcome the required activation energy of the reaction
Temperature increases the kinetic energy of reactants so a greater number of particles have the required activation energy needed to react
Concentration increases the number of reacting particles pre volume, so there is a greater number of collisions per second
Surface area: smaller particles have a greater surface area so there is more surface exposed to collide with. = greater number of collisions per second
Catalyst: Lowers the required activation energy of the reaction so a greater number of particles have the required energy to react.
A system in equilibrium will shift to minimise any changes made to it.
temperature, add heat -equilibrium shifts to the endothermic side to use up heat added
concentration, add reactant - equilibrium shifts to product side to use up added reactant
pressure, increase pressure - equilibrium shifts to side with the least mole of gas to decrease the pressure
E = mc[t2-t1], m=mass of water, c = 4.18kJmol-1g-1, [t2-t1] = change in temp
If C + O2 --> CO2 H = -341kJmol-1 what mass of C is needed to give off -400kJ of heat?, 1mol of C --> -341kJ ? C --> -400kJ, -400/-341 x 1 = 1.17 mol. 1.17x12 = 14.04g of C is needed
an acid is a H+ donor
a base is a H+ acceptor
Acid and conjugate bases differ by one H.
bases and conjugate acids differ by only one H.
pH = -log[H3O+]
pOH = -log[OH-]
Kw = [H3O+][OH-], Kw = 1x10-14