Year 12 chemistry Equilibrium, acids and bases

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Year 12 chemistry Equilibrium, acids and bases by Mind Map: Year 12 chemistry Equilibrium, acids and bases

1. Rates of reaction

1.1. reaction collision theory

1.1.1. reacting particles must collide

1.1.2. reacting particles must collide with the correct orientation

1.1.3. reacting particles must collide with enough energy to overcome the required activation energy of the reaction

1.2. factors affecting rate of reaction

1.2.1. Temperature increases the kinetic energy of reactants so a greater number of particles have the required activation energy needed to react

1.2.2. Concentration increases the number of reacting particles pre volume, so there is a greater number of collisions per second

1.2.3. Surface area: smaller particles have a greater surface area so there is more surface exposed to collide with. = greater number of collisions per second

1.2.4. Catalyst: Lowers the required activation energy of the reaction so a greater number of particles have the required energy to react.

2. Equilibrium

2.1. Le Chateliers Principle

2.1.1. A system in equilibrium will shift to minimise any changes made to it.

2.2. Factors affecting equilibrium position

2.2.1. temperature

2.2.1.1. add heat -equilibrium shifts to the endothermic side to use up heat added

2.2.2. concentration

2.2.2.1. add reactant - equilibrium shifts to product side to use up added reactant

2.2.3. pressure

2.2.3.1. increase pressure - equilibrium shifts to side with the least mole of gas to decrease the pressure

2.3. Kc = [products]/[reactants]

3. Reaction enthalpy

3.1. Temp changes

3.1.1. E = mc[t2-t1]

3.1.1.1. m=mass of water, c = 4.18kJmol-1g-1, [t2-t1] = change in temp

3.2. Reaction enthalpy

3.2.1. If C + O2 --> CO2 H = -341kJmol-1 what mass of C is needed to give off -400kJ of heat?

3.2.1.1. 1mol of C --> -341kJ ? C --> -400kJ

3.2.1.1.1. -400/-341 x 1 = 1.17 mol. 1.17x12 = 14.04g of C is needed

3.3. Types of enthalpy changes

3.3.1. exothermic reaction

3.3.2. endothermic reaction

4. Acids and bases

4.1. Bronsted-Lowrey acid

4.1.1. an acid is a H+ donor

4.1.2. a base is a H+ acceptor

4.2. Conjugate acid and base pairs

4.2.1. Acid and conjugate bases differ by one H.

4.2.2. bases and conjugate acids differ by only one H.

4.3. pH calculations

4.3.1. pH = -log[H3O+]

4.3.2. pOH = -log[OH-]

4.3.3. Kw = [H3O+][OH-]

4.3.3.1. Kw = 1x10-14

4.4. Water equilibrium 2H2O --> H3O+ + OH-