7 Aspects of Civilization

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7 Aspects of Civilization by Mind Map: 7 Aspects of Civilization

1. Arts and Education

1.1. Sumerians

1.1.1. Ruins and artifacts show us that this civilization included the use of arches, ramps and columns. Sculptures include statues with large, wide-open eyes, and small objects carved out of ivory.

1.1.2. Sumerian writing is called cuneiform. They used it to keep business accounts and other records.

1.1.2.1. In time the Sumerians started to write works on grammar, law and even Literature(such as stories and poems).

1.2. Shang/Zhou

1.2.1. Development of Chinese writing was closely tied to the use of oracle bones.

1.2.1.1. Shang also created a precise calender based on the moon.

2. Science and Technology

2.1. Sumerians

2.1.1. The Sumerians developed a math system based on the number 60 that we still use today.

2.1.1.1. They also learned to use geometry, which aided in their construction of elaborate structures and irrigation systems.

2.1.1.1.1. The Sumerians were knowledgeable in the medical field and even performed basic surgeries.

2.1.1.2. They invented the wheel, which they used to make pottery and a variety of vehicles. They used bronze to make stronger tools and weapons in addition to inventing the plow.

2.2. Shang/Zhou

2.2.1. The Shang/Zhou civilizations Greatly advanced in making bronze and large structures such as tombs.

2.2.1.1. They developed the decimal system. Also created a 12 month calendar with 365 and 1/4 days, based on the moon's cycles.

3. Government and Leaders

3.1. SUMERIANS

3.1.1. Over time the Sumerian cities formed their own city-states. They were political units with there own government. As the city sates grew they were constantly fighting over land and water. they believed these city states were protected by the Gods.

3.1.2. priest held high status and governed the city sates. Though as the city states continued to fight for dominance the war chiefs began to rule them as kings. Many of these kings over time began to create dynasties.

3.2. Shang/Zhou

3.2.1. Shang/Zhou introduced the Mandate of Heaven. This is the belief that royal authority is the result of divine approval.

3.2.2. China was ruled by a strong monarchy. Kings were surrounded by a court. A court was a gathering of wealthy nobles.These wealthy nobles performed rituals and intended to strengthen the kingdom and keep it safe.

3.2.2.1. Governors ruled distant parts of the kingdoms. A large and developed army also was part of Shang/Zhou.

4. Social Structure and Family Life

4.1. Sumerians

4.1.1. They had a distinct social hierarchy

4.1.2. At the top were kings, priests, and their principal agents. At the bottom were slaves.

4.1.3. Men held political power and made laws.

4.1.4. Women took care of the home and family.

4.2. Shang/Zhou

4.2.1. Peasents barely made it with the little they were provided with from the king's taxes.

4.2.2. Warriors were very powerful at this time.

4.2.3. Overtime, the king lost a great deal of power to high aristocrats.

4.2.4. Kings and nobles were at the top of the social ladder.

5. Economy and Trade

5.1. Sumerians

5.1.1. Traded w/ people across Southwest Asia and beyond exchanging woven textiles, timber, and stone.

5.1.2. Obtained most of their materials for their buildings and art through trade.

5.1.3. Lacked materials such as wood and metals.

5.1.4. A trade increased, a socail hierarcy formed in the society.

5.2. Shang/Zhou

5.2.1. Created one of the first systems of money.

5.2.2. Farmers learned new techniques that helped them to produce more than enough crops creating food surpluses.

5.2.3. Learned how to use iron which could be cast more cheaply and quicker than bronze.

5.2.4. Cities grew because populations were increaing which led to the building of roads and canals.

6. Geography and Argiculture

6.1. Sumerians

6.1.1. The Sumerians found good soil in the Fertile Cresent and the Mesopotamia

6.1.2. There were a lot of floods but the floods would leave behind silt, a fertile mud that would enrich the soil

6.1.3. The people had many problems with growing the crops. Rains would flood the crops and droughts would dry them out.

6.2. Shang/Zhou

6.2.1. In China they had long rivers, fertile soils, temperate climates, and isolated valleys

6.2.2. Two major river supplied the Shang's crops with water; the the Chang Jiang, also called the Yangzi, and the Huang He, or Yellow River.

6.2.3. The Chinese started growing crops 9,000 years ago by the Huang He River

7. Religion

7.1. Sumerians

7.1.1. Polytheism: worship of many gods. They believed gods controlled all natural forces

7.1.2. A God protected each city-state

7.1.3. The people believed the Gods were like humans in many ways but had an enormous amount of power.

7.1.4. The people constantly planted crops and built temples and gave food to the Gods, to please them

7.2. Shang/Zhou

7.2.1. They had tombs and would put valuables for those people

7.2.2. Studies have shown that they believed in an afterlife because they would bury their ruler with riches and servants.

7.2.3. The living would talk to ancestors through oracle bones. They would talk into a shell and then put hot metal on the bone to create cracks and a priest would interpret the cracks.