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CHAPTER 3: MIGRATION By: Max Langmack by Mind Map: CHAPTER 3: MIGRATION By: Max Langmack

1. Field Note Risking Lives for Remittances

1.1. Notes:

1.2. Haiti is most impoverished country in western hemisphere

1.3. Haitians try to illegally sneak into Florida for a US citizenship

1.4. Immigrants are Risking their lives because they want a better life. Their country is usually struggling with poverty and economically

1.5. The Cuban "Wet foot, dry foot" policy is if Cubans are caught at sea migrating, they are deported, and if they make it to land, they may stay

1.6. Remittances are the money and goods that migrants send home to their families

1.7. Perception is an overwhelming factor in migration: as long as migrants perceive a better life abroad, they will.continue to migrate

1.8. Haitian immigrants sent $1 billion in remittances in 2007. Almost their home country's GDP!

1.9. Reverse Remittance are a new flow of money due to American economy downturn of remittances

1.10. 31.2 million immigrants in US, 20.4 million legal

1.11. Countries are cracking down on illegal immigration since 2001

1.12. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an organization that allows US, Canada, and Mexico to establish better trade and more help to each other

2. What is migration?

2.1. Cyclic Movement

2.1.1. Cyclic Movement is movement that involves shorter periods away from home

2.1.2. They usually start from our home, go through our activity spaces, then end up back home (aka Commuting)

2.1.3. Another form is seasonal movement: moving somewhere different for different seasons

2.2. Periodic Movement

2.2.1. Periodic Movement involves returning home but longer period of time away

2.2.2. People can move periodically for migrant labor

2.2.3. Some people will move periodically to follow their herd or lovestock

2.2.4. Going off to college is another example of P. Movement, and military service

2.3. Migration

2.3.1. Migration is when movement results in a permanent location across significant distances

2.3.2. International migration is migrating across the globe, while internal migration is in a country

2.3.3. Emigrant leaves a country, immigrants move into a new country

2.3.4. Internal US migrants have gone to rural areas and medium sized cities instead of urbanization

2.3.5. People in Peru are ditching rural areas and moving to more urban cites like Lima

2.4. Notes

2.5. Movement changes people, places moved to/from, speeds up interactions (diffusion), and is growing more and more

3. Why do people migrate?

3.1. Notes

3.1.1. Some people are forced to migrate, while some people choose/volunteer

3.1.2. The European migration to US in 1800-1900s is mostly voluntary

3.1.3. Men generally migrate father and more than women

3.2. Forced Migration

3.2.1. Atlantic slave trade was one of most forceful migration events (12-30 million migrants )

3.2.2. Slaves taken mostly to US and Caribbean and put in plantations

3.2.3. Modern day forced migration is sending back illegal immigrants to home country trying to sneak in other countries

3.2.4. People from Afghan are leaving because of war

3.3. Push and pull factors in Voluntary Migration

3.3.1. Studies show people choosing to migrate is distance moved, flow of info back to the source, families less likely to move internationally than young adults, and urban dwellers migrate less than rural migrators

3.3.2. Farther distance to migrate, less migrants there will be

3.3.3. The gravity model predicts interaction between places of population size and the distance between them

3.3.4. Push factors help a migrant leave a place

3.3.5. Pull factors are things that try to keep a migrant from leaving or going somewhere else

3.3.6. Migrants make their choice of where to move based on push/pull factors. They perceive push factor more accurately than pull factors

3.3.7. Migrants go thru a set of stages to route their migration called step migration

3.3.8. Some find a life/job along the way which is known as intervening opportunity

3.3.9. Push/pull factors come along the route to the destination

3.4. Technological Advances

3.4.1. Modern forms of accessibility to transportation can encourage migration

3.4.2. Quicker info about news in distant places, job openings in areas, and ways to reach desired destinations (kinship links)

3.4.3. Spreading information fast can quickly lengthen immigration waves

3.5. Culture and Traditions

3.5.1. People move because afraid of showing their culture, traditions, religion, etc.

3.6. Environmental Conditions

3.6.1. Famines force farmers to loose money and emigrate (potato famine in Ireland)

3.6.2. People also move to avoid natural catastrophes

3.7. Armed Conflict and Civil War

3.7.1. War can make people permanent Emigrants, unable to return

3.8. Political Circumstances

3.8.1. Things such as war and leaders can cause migrants to move

3.9. Types of push and pull factors

3.9.1. LEGAL STATUS ECONOMIC CONDITIONS POWER RELATIONSHIPS Certain companies like certain races for jobs which can migrate employees to other places (Carpet companies like Mexican employees and bring into US) Poverty drives people away from home Employment and fair wages work as pull factors

3.9.2. Migrants can sneak in illegally and might get deported, or have a visa that legally gets them in for a job transfer or other occasions

3.10. Any single factor comes into play for a migrant on the move

4. Where do people migrate?

4.1. Each place of migration depends on push/pull factors, location, networks, and government actions

4.2. Guest workers

4.2.1. Europe list many men from WW2, and they needed guest workers

4.2.2. Guest workers are migrants that are labored or employed

4.2.3. The European guest workers never left after work was done

4.2.4. Guest workers' home governments want them to come back after work is done, but sometimes they stay

4.2.5. Guest workers change the feel, culture, and overall mosaic of where they are

4.3. Refugees

4.3.1. People who cannot hold on to their current life migrate to a refugee camp for help

4.3.2. United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees (UNHCR) estimated 83% of Refugees flee not far from their home country

4.3.3. Refugee population is growing

4.3.4. Organizations like UN and UNHCR try to help Refugees return to homelands (repatriation) REGIONS OF DISLOCATION North Africa and SE Asia have most Refugees (50%+) then subsaharan Africa in 2nd w/20% More war and conflict, more refugees Much war and poverty in middle east/North Africa result in the world's biggest refugee region Gulf War in 1991 got millions of Refugees Soviet invasion of Afghan 9/11 attack created a war, creating more Afghan refugees African Refugees are mostly just displaced humans by poverty, corruption, and disease Refugee of East, West, and North Africa flows into subsaharan Africa, creating a huge refugee region (20% of world) North and south sudan split know two and created new borders, which generated new Refugee flows than before in this area Attacks in African countries are a result of refugee flows The soviet intrusion on South Asia has created 3+ million Refugees Refugee problem in s. Asia is the civil war in Sri Lanka. Lives lost, damaged economy and displacements are results People fled Vietnam in the long war Tsunamis and cyclones on the coast of SE Asia cause many displacements Refugees in Europe mainly from WW2 and holocaust Displacements in countryside regions in world and people abandon their surroundings due to bad conditions All displacements and Refugees impact the future of the earth

4.3.5. A refugee is a person who has fear for being prosecuted for their overall information stats

4.3.6. Internally displaced persons are people displaced from their country

4.3.7. Some Refugees are sent to an asylum

4.4. Global Migration Flows

4.4.1. Before 1500, migration was for trade and exploration

4.4.2. Soon after 1500 lands were being colonized and bringing migrants in

4.4.3. One of the biggest migrant areas is Europe. Europe to N. America is one of the biggest migrant flows of all time

4.4.4. The slave migration had an impact on both sides of Atlantic.

4.4.5. The Americas were a big destination for African slaves

4.4.6. The British migrated heavily to east/south Asia

4.5. Regional Migration Flows

4.5.1. Migration goes a a global scale or a regional scale, from continent to continent or home to a neighboring country ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES RECONNECTION OF CULTURAL GROUPS Reg. Migration flows also center reconnecting cultural groups. Such as, Jewish immigrants flow to israel Developing countries usually have foreign investment, vast majority of paying jobs, and where infrastructure is concentrated (islands of development) The reasons above lure migrants (mostly men) European colonialism impacted global Migration flow Southeast Asia is very European, and they excel in trade, commerce, finance, and economic position

4.6. National Migration Flows

4.6.1. Before 1950, US internally migrated west and south

4.6.2. After civil war and WW1, millions of African Americans migrated north

4.6.3. Great Depression in 1930s declined US migration

4.6.4. Trend reversed in 1970s. South grew economically, and drew in African Americans again

4.6.5. In Russia, migrants went internally east

4.6.6. Russification is a policy that assimilates all people from Soviet territory into Russia's

4.6.7. About 1 million Mexicans make it to the US each year

4.6.8. Mexico is running short of employers and labor shortage due to migration

5. How do governments affect migration?

5.1. Governments stop migration by securing borders for illegal immigrants

5.2. Legal Restrictions

5.2.1. Some countries pass laws that certain people (race/ethnicity) are not allowed in an area

5.3. Post-September 11

5.3.1. Since 9/11 government has more security concerns on immigration

5.3.2. Policies were passed

5.3.3. More secure on Mexican border

5.3.4. More travel checkpoints and better inspections

5.4. Waves of Immigration in the United States

5.4.1. In 1800s US opened immigration doors

5.4.2. Europeans are US #1 immigrants

5.4.3. Congress set immigration quotas,or goals for how many countries could permit immigrants

5.4.4. Great Depression lowered all migration in US

5.4.5. Immigration rose after great Dep. When US let Asians immigrate in