Chapter 1 "Understanding Language"

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Chapter 1 "Understanding Language" by Mind Map: Chapter 1 "Understanding Language"

1. Word

1.1. Spelling

1.2. Definition

1.2.1. The meaning of the a word.

1.3. Part of Speech

1.3.1. Noun (n)

1.3.2. Pronoun (pron)

1.3.3. Adjective (adj)

1.3.4. Verb (v)

1.3.5. Adverb (adv)

1.3.6. Preposition (prep)

1.3.7. Conjunction (conj)

1.3.8. Interjection (???)

1.4. Collocation

1.5. Frequency

2. Nouns

2.1. Can be

2.1.1. Subject of a verb

2.1.2. Object of a verb

2.1.2.1. Preposition

2.2. Classified

2.2.1. Countable [C]

2.2.1.1. Singular

2.2.1.1.1. Definite : the-

2.2.1.1.2. Indefinite : a(n)-

2.2.1.2. Plural

2.2.1.2.1. Definite : the-, -s

2.2.1.2.2. Indefinite : -s

2.2.2. Uncountable [U]

2.2.2.1. Only singular

2.2.2.1.1. Definite : the-

2.2.2.1.2. Indefinite : n/a

2.3. Rules for plural noun

2.3.1. Add -es

2.3.1.1. -ch

2.3.1.2. -s

2.3.1.3. -sh

2.3.1.4. -x

2.3.1.5. -z

2.3.2. Remove -f -fe and add -ves

2.3.3. Remove -y and add -ies

2.4. Quantifiers

2.4.1. Both plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns

2.4.1.1. all

2.4.1.2. any

2.4.1.3. lots of

2.4.1.4. most

2.4.1.5. some

2.4.1.6. a lot of

2.4.1.7. enough

2.4.1.8. more

2.4.1.9. plenty of

2.4.2. Uncountable nouns

2.4.2.1. a little

2.4.2.2. much

2.4.3. Plural countable nouns

2.4.3.1. both

2.4.3.2. many

2.4.3.3. a few

2.4.3.4. several

2.4.4. Singular countable nouns

2.4.4.1. another

2.4.4.2. each

2.4.4.3. every

3. Verb

3.1. Classified

3.1.1. Intransitive [ I ]

3.1.1.1. does not require any object.

3.1.2. Transitive [ T ]

3.1.2.1. needs an object.

3.2. Finite & Nonfinite verb

3.2.1. Finite verbs

3.2.1.1. require subject

3.2.1.2. in the past

3.2.1.2.1. at the present

3.2.2. Nonfinite verbs

3.2.2.1. do not require subject

3.2.2.2. Infinitive (to+v)

3.2.2.2.1. can be

3.2.2.2.2. verbs

3.2.2.2.3. adjectives

3.2.2.2.4. verbs followed by a noun or pronoun and an infinitive

3.2.2.3. Gerund (v+ing)

3.2.2.3.1. verbs

3.2.2.3.2. adjective+prepositions

3.2.2.3.3. Infinitive and gerunds

3.2.2.4. Present participle (v+ing)

3.2.2.4.1. reduced from adjective clauses

3.2.2.5. Past Participle (v3)

4. Active and Passive Voice

4.1. Passive

4.1.1. S + be + past participle (v3)

4.1.2. not to use passive voice with

4.1.2.1. Intransitive verbs

5. Present and Past Tense

5.1. Present tense

5.1.1. subject-verb agreement

5.1.1.1. Subjects joined by "and" take a plural verb

5.1.1.2. A prepositional phrase does not affect the verb

5.1.1.3. The verb agrees with the subject that is closer to the verb in the sentence, when the following co-coordinators

5.1.1.3.1. either...or, neither...nor, not only...but also

5.1.1.4. When nominal clauses, infinitives, or gerunds are used as subjects, they usually take a singular verb