Chapter 1 "Understanding Language"

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Chapter 1 "Understanding Language" by Mind Map: Chapter 1 "Understanding Language"

1. Word

1.1. Spelling

1.2. Definition

1.2.1. The meaning of the a word.

1.3. Part of Speech

1.3.1. Noun (n)

1.3.2. Pronoun (pron)

1.3.3. Adjective (adj)

1.3.4. Verb (v)

1.3.5. Adverb (adv)

1.3.6. Preposition (prep)

1.3.7. Conjunction (conj)

1.3.8. Interjection (???)

1.4. Collocation

1.5. Frequency

2. Nouns

2.1. Can be

2.1.1. Subject of a verb

2.1.2. Object of a verb Preposition

2.2. Classified

2.2.1. Countable [C] Singular Definite : the- Indefinite : a(n)- Plural Definite : the-, -s Indefinite : -s

2.2.2. Uncountable [U] Only singular Definite : the- Indefinite : n/a

2.3. Rules for plural noun

2.3.1. Add -es -ch -s -sh -x -z

2.3.2. Remove -f -fe and add -ves

2.3.3. Remove -y and add -ies

2.4. Quantifiers

2.4.1. Both plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns all any lots of most some a lot of enough more plenty of

2.4.2. Uncountable nouns a little much

2.4.3. Plural countable nouns both many a few several

2.4.4. Singular countable nouns another each every

3. Verb

3.1. Classified

3.1.1. Intransitive [ I ] does not require any object.

3.1.2. Transitive [ T ] needs an object.

3.2. Finite & Nonfinite verb

3.2.1. Finite verbs require subject in the past at the present

3.2.2. Nonfinite verbs do not require subject Infinitive (to+v) can be verbs adjectives verbs followed by a noun or pronoun and an infinitive Gerund (v+ing) verbs adjective+prepositions Infinitive and gerunds Present participle (v+ing) reduced from adjective clauses Past Participle (v3)

4. Active and Passive Voice

4.1. Passive

4.1.1. S + be + past participle (v3)

4.1.2. not to use passive voice with Intransitive verbs

5. Present and Past Tense

5.1. Present tense

5.1.1. subject-verb agreement Subjects joined by "and" take a plural verb A prepositional phrase does not affect the verb The verb agrees with the subject that is closer to the verb in the sentence, when the following co-coordinators either...or, neither...nor, not only...but also When nominal clauses, infinitives, or gerunds are used as subjects, they usually take a singular verb