Comprehension: Text Structures and Teaching Procedures (continued: Part 2)

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Comprehension: Text Structures and Teaching Procedures (continued: Part 2) by Mind Map: Comprehension: Text Structures and Teaching Procedures (continued: Part 2)

1. In the EXTEND step, students extend their learning like they may gather additional information to add to the web

1.1. Teaching Expository Text structure: Direct instruction in the recognition of text patterns is also helpful, work up to selections from single paragraphs that have obvious structure being taught

1.1.1. When teaching text structures to ELLs, encourage the ESL teacher and the content-area teachers to explore the structures with the students

1.1.2. Graphic Organizers can be used to understand content and structure Graphic Organizers which is when concepts are written in circles, rectangles, or triangles, and interrelationships are shown with lines and arrows They are especially helpful to ELLs

1.1.3. Identifying the structure of a text is only a first step, next the reader must then make two kinds of connections: internal (how ideas in the text are related to each other) and external (how text ideas are related to the reader's background) The right kinds of questions can help students detect relationships among ideas in a text An example of an internal connection question: What causes rusting? An example of an external connection question: What kinds of things rust in your house? Why?

1.1.4. Another way to teach expository text structure is to encourage students to compose pieces that use comparison-contrast and other types of structures until students practice will all the major types of structures

2. The Role of Questions in Comprehension

2.1. Questions are significant in aiding comprehension

2.1.1. Questions can be used to develop concepts, build background, clarify reasoning processes, and even lead students to higher levels of thinking

2.1.2. Questions foster understanding and retention

2.1.3. When students are asked questions about information in text, they remember that information longer

2.2. Planning Questions

2.2.1. Questions need to be planned carefully as they are important

2.2.2. They should be used to establish the main elements in a story or the main concepts in a nonfiction selection

2.2.3. It is important to ask questions that help children see relationships among ideas, relate new information to their background of experience, and modify their schema

2.2.4. Students must also have opportunities to respond in a personal way to literacy pieces: to judge the material and apply the information they gather to their own lives

2.3. Placement of Questions

2.3.1. The placement of questions has an impact on their effect Questions asked before reading help readers activate a schema and set a purpose Questions that are asked after reading help readers organize and summarize the text Questions asked after reading help readers organize and summarize the text Questions asked during reading help readers process text

2.4. Types of Questions

2.4.1. A way of looking at questions is to examine the kinds of thinking processes involved in asking and answering them

2.4.2. An arrangement of skills from least demanding to those that require the highest mental powers is kown as a taxonomy

2.4.3. The following is a taxonomy of types of questions based on Weinstein and Mayer's system and Bloom's taxonomy Comprehending: Students understand on a literal level Organizing: Students select important details from the selection and construct realtionships among them Elaborating: elaborating entails making connections between information from the text and prior knowledge and includes a wide range of activities: making inferences, creating images and analogies, and evaluating or judging Monitoring: Monitoring involves being aware of cognitive processes, it entails knowing whether a selection makes sense and knowing what steps might be taken to improve comprehension

2.5. Using Wait Time

2.5.1. One way of extending responses is to make use of wait time. Waiting 5 seconds results in longer, more elaborative responses, higher-level thought processes, and fewer no-responses and I-don't-knows Teachers who use wait time become better at helping students clarify and expand their responses Silence after an answer is given also helps Dillon suggested waiting from 3 to 5 seconds when a student pauses, seems to be unable to continue, or seems to be finished speaking The postresponse wait time must be a genuine grace period. Maintain eye contact and do not turn away. Failing to maintain eye contact and turning away are cues that your attention is being diverted and will shut down any additional response that the student is about to make

2.6. Classroom Atmosphere

2.6.1. Establish the right classroom atmosphere The spirit of inquiry and exploration should be obvious The teacher should be warm and accepting, so students will feel free to speculate, go out on an intellectual limb, or take an unpopular stand without being criticized Call on underachieving students as often as achieving ones and giving introverts as much opportunity to respond as extroverts

2.7. Techniques for Asking Questions

2.7.1. Discussions should be considered opportunities to expand students' background and enhance their verbal and thinking skills Emphasis should be instead be on helping the child If a student is unable to provide an answer, it may be the fault of the question, rephrase it, or ask an easier one If students' answers are too brief, use an elaboration probe: "Would you please tell me more?" If a response is unclear, you might use a restating-crystallizing probe. You restate what you believe the student said and then ask whether your restatement is correct A technique for using questions to evoke higher-level thinking processes was devised by Taba (1965)


3.1. For FELS the teacher has to encourage students to reason out and substantiate their answers. If teachers do the students' thinking for them, the strategy is ineffective

3.2. Another technique on how to use questions: Responsive Elaboration, which is based on students' answers since their answers are used as guides to students' thought processes

3.2.1. To use responsive elaboration, teachers listen to answers to determine how students arrived at those responses, they might ask what thought processes led the student to this response? The key to using responsive elaboration is asking yourself two questions: "what has gone wrong with the student's thinking? and "what can I ask or state that would guide the student's thinking to the right though processes and correct answer?"

3.3. Asking questions to ELLs:

3.3.1. ELLs may not respond to teachers' questions because they don't know the answer or they can't understand the question

3.3.2. Teachers need to make an extra effort to develop the responding skills of ELLs Request a response in the student's native language and have someone translate it if you don't speak that langauge If the student gives an incorrect response that might be due to a misunderstanding of content or langauge, say: "Help me to understand what you mean. Tell me more so that I can understand your thinking." IF the student says nothing or "i don't know," but think the student might be able to answer the question, say:"i think you know something about this, and I would like to hear what you have to say." you might also rephrase the question an/or request a yes/no response. Or you might prompt a nonverbal response:"can you show me what you know by acting it out or drawing it?" When ELLs say, "i don't know," they may mean that they don't know how to express their knowledge in English. The key to fostering participation are to value all responses and provide scaffolding Hold informal discussions and conversations. These can prepare students for more formal discussions. Learn some key phrases in the students' native language. Seeing that you are attempting to use a new language might encourage your students to do the same Teach ELLs to respond by model responding and providing starter sentences on a sentence wall Sentence walls display useful expressions that help students take part in classroom discussions and ask questions

3.4. Another tactic for asking questions: Think-Pair-Share

3.4.1. It fosters discussion and thinking In the Think step, the teacher poses a quesiton or idea and the students reflect on it In the Pair step, students share their thinking with a partner In the Share step, the pairs or groups share with the whole class via a spokesperson, who shares not only his or her own thoughts but also those of his or her partner or group Model the sharing technique. show students what the speaker does and what the listener does, so that they have an understanding of both roles

3.4.2. Think-pair-share is really helpful for strugglign students and ELLs

3.5. Exemplary Teaching: A steppingstone approach

3.5.1. To prepare below-level readers to comprehend the challenging texts used to cover key concepts and that are typically used in content-area classes, the teachers identified the harder target texts and then analyszed the skills and understandings needed to comprehend them The teachers next chose easier texts that provided preparation for reading the challenging text So students read the easier texts first, these prepared them for the more difficult texts

3.5.2. Teachers can also use a conversational approach to building students' comprehension of the text By talking about the text in a conversational style, the teachers were able to lead students to a deeper level of understanding In a conversational approach, the students were free to ask questions about portions of the text that they didn't understand and also to build on what they did understand a conversational approach also promotes independent thinking In a conversational approach, students were encouraged to lead discussions, but they were still asked to justify and explain responses using the text and their background knowledge Students in Special Education made progress

4. Frameworks for Fostering Comprehension

4.1. Asking the right kinds of questions, building background, activating schema, learning to use strategies, and monitoring one's cognitive processes are all essential elements in fostering comprehension

4.2. Systematic approaches that use the tactics just mentioned are necessary so that building background and vocabulary and pre-reading and post-reading questions are all related to the selection's major concepts and the students' needs

4.2.1. Two such frameworks are guided reading and the directed reading-thinking activity Guided Reading, which is also known as the directed reading activity (DRA), is a framework within which the teacher supplies whatever assistance or guidance students need to read a selection successfully Guided reading is used with individuals or with groups of students who are on approximately the same level of reading development. Selections are provided that match the students' level of development The ultimate goal in guided reading is to help children learn how to use independent reading strategies successfully A guided reading reading lessons consists of five steps: introducing the text (preparation), reading the text, discussing the text, rereading or revisiting the text, and extending the text (follow-up) Extending the text is optional

5. Steps in a Guided Reading Lesson

5.1. A guided reading lesson proceeds as follows

5.1.1. Introducing the text: this phase might use discussions, demonstrations, video clips or other audiovisual aids, and simulations to give students guidance in the following areas Experiential background or concepts: experiential gaps that impede understanding of the selection's major concepts are filled in. Concepts or ideas crucial to understanding the selection are also developed. At times, students have the necessary background or schema but need help activating it. Students don't automatically activate their schema Critical vocabulary: vocabulary necessary for understanding the selection is presented. Care is taken to show how those words are related to each other Reading strategies: Students have to know how a selection is to be read. Most selections require a mix or preparational, organizational, and elaboration strategies. Still, some strategies work better than others with certain kinds of materials Purpose for reading: the purpose for reading usually embraces the overall significance of the selection, like the purpose can be a question or a series of questions to answer or a prediction to evaluate Interest or connection: Lastly, the teacher tries to create interest in the selection, the teacher might also help students make connections between what they are about to read and their own lives

5.1.2. The elements in the introduction step have been described separately, but in actual practice they are merged like the purpose for reading flows from the overall discussion; and, throughout the discussion, the teacher tries to create an interest in the selection

5.2. Reading the text: the first reading is usually silent.

5.2.1. The teacher should also be available to give assistance as needed, making note of who requested help and what kinds of help were supplied. Those students can then be scheduled for added instruction or practice in those areas

5.2.2. The teacher should note students' monitoring and repair strategies

5.2.3. The teacher should be actively involved during the silent reading step. The teacher should unobtrusively interrupt readers to see how they are doing and ask them to about any difficulties they have experienced, passages that were puzzling, or words that were difficult. The teacher might also interrupt the silent reading to remind students to use a key strategy that has been the focus of recent lessons

5.2.4. Interactive reading: the teacher guides, directs or coaches students through the silent reading of meaningful chunks of text by asking them a question, giving prompts, or helping them formulate questions that they then try to answer as they read the designated section of text

5.2.5. Struggling readers might read along with a recorded version of the text or a digitized version in which difficult words or whole passages can be highlighted and pronounced

5.2.6. For guided reading, it's best if the text is at students' level rather than so difficult that they need some sort of aid

5.3. Discussion: the discussion complements the purpose for reading

5.3.1. Students read a selection for a specific purpose; the discussion begins with the purpose question

5.3.2. During the discussion, concepts are clarified and expanded, background is built, and relationships between known and unknown, new and old are reinforced

5.3.3. The teacher also evaluates students' performance, noting whether they are able to consider evidence carefully and draw conclusions and noting weakness in concepts, comprehension, word attack, and applicaiton

5.3.4. Discussions are to build understanding

5.3.5. Part of the discussion might be devoted to asking students to describe their use of strategies, with a focus on the strategy being emphasized

5.3.6. The discussion can also provide an opportunity to use new vocabulary words.

5.4. Revisiting: revisiting takes the form of rereading selected passages

5.4.1. It helps correct misinformation, obtain additional information data, to enhance appreciation or deepen understanding, or to give students opportunities for purposeful oral reading.

5.4.2. Oral reading should not be overemphasized in this stage, it is generally a poor practice to have students reread an entire selection orally. Oral rereading should be for specific purposes: to clarify a point, to listen to a humorous passage or enjoy an especially vivid description, or to substantiate a conclusion or an answer to a question

5.5. Extending: this step has activities that offer opportunities to work on comprehension or word attack weaknesses evidenced during the discussion phase, to provide additional practice, to extend concepts introduced in the selection, or to apply skills and strategies

5.5.1. Examples of extending: students might read a selection on the same topic or by the same author, draw illustrations for the selection, hold a panel discussion on a controversial idea, create an advertisement for the text, or write a letter to the author The possibilities are limitless, but the follow-up should grow out of the selection and should encompass worthwhile language or creative arts activities

5.6. Guided Reading for Beginning Readers

5.6.1. For beginning readers, the guidance might consist of going through the text page by page and discussing the selection and highlighting unfamiliar expressions, unknown concepts, and difficult words. An example of that is the teacher walks the students page by page and pictures are used to provide an overview of the selection, that is called text walk or picture walk Text Walk: Walk students through the pages of the story page by page or picture by picture so that they get an overview of the talke


6.1. ELLs may need additional help during guided reading with complex syntactical structures, common words that would be known by native speakers of English, figures of speech, homophones, homographs, or words and expressions that don't have a literal translation

6.1.1. As part of the preparation step, the teacher might point out and discuss sentences or phrases likely to cause difficulty because of their unfamiliarity ELLs might need background building or explanation of holidays and customs, a text walk or picture walk might be helpful for ELLS ELLs could have a writing activity that could be productive since ELLs may be able to express in writing ideas that they would have a difficult time expressing orally

6.2. Guided Reading with More Advanced Students: usually don't need to be walked through a text page by page

6.3. Preparing a Guided Reading Lesson:

6.3.1. Creating a guided reading lesson starts with an analysis of the selection to be read. After reading the selection, the teacher decides what he or she wants the students to learn from it After analyzing the selection, the teacher chooses two or three ideas or story elements that she or he feels are most important

6.3.2. After selecting these major ideas, the teacher lists vocabulary necessary to understand them The teacher selects the words that will be difficult for the students. From the list of difficult words, those most essential to an understanding of the selection are chosen. Examining these words gives the teacher a sense of what prior knowledge or schema the passage requires

6.3.3. A mental assessment of the students helps the teacher decide whether additional background has to be built.

6.3.4. Once the major understandings and difficult vocabulary words have been chosen, the teacher looks over the selection to decide what cognitive and reading strategies are necessary to understand it

6.3.5. Building background and vocabulary, activating schema, piquing interest, setting purposes, and giving guidance in reading and cognitive strategies are all done in the preparatory segment o the lesson. Generally, that takes the form of a discussion.

6.3.6. A sample guided reading lesson: Step 1: introducing the text: during the introducing the teacher presents vocabulary and concepts that might be difficult for students. As the teacher mentions the words, she or he points to each, which has already been written on the board. A teacher can also bring other strategies to make the topic personal to the students like bring in their opinions. Possibly a teacher could use the imaging strategy. Step 2: reading: during silent reading, the teacher looks to get an idea of students' reactions to the story. Their silence suggest that they are intrigued. The teacher notes the types of words students are having difficulty with and teacher proposes such strategies as looking for pronounceable word parts, decode the word through an analogy or a contextual strategy Step 3: discussion: the teacher begins the discussion with the purpose question, additional questions flow from the students' responses, the teacher keeps in mind the three major understandings that she wants students to learn and make sure that they are explored. If there is some disagreement, and the teacher asks the class to go back to find a passage that will answer the question. That can also be used for in-depth teaching. A teacher if their is confusion wants to check for improved understanding. Lastly, the teacher asks about students' use of strategies: What strategies did you use to help you read the story and how did imaging help? Step 4: revisiting the text: for revisiting, during the discussion, the teacher notes that the students had difficulty scanning through the selection to find facts that would justify their responses, so next she would review the skill of scanning. The teacher would model the process and explain why it is important and when it is used. The teacher also reviews method for attacking multisyllabic words and stresses the importance of both syllabication and context. So examine unknown words in context, and students should use both syllabication and context clues to figure them out. To review vocabulary, students create and then discuss semantic maps Step 5: extending the text: here a teacher uses other projects to bolster student's learning; some students design their own dream cars and create ads for them, others read books about transportation in the future or other books about cars Step 6: evaluation and review: note students' silent reading, especially signs of difficulty, and students' comprehension during discussion. Discuss with students how they used visualizing and other strategies

6.4. Guided Reading for Fiction

6.4.1. A lesson for a piece of fiction would use a story elements map instead of a list of main concepts as the framework The story elements map results in better questions and improved comprehension In short, the teacher asks himself or herself, what is the core of this story? and then focuses questions for students on the core To reach the core, the teacher decides what the starting point of the story is and then lists "the major events and ideas that constitute the plot or gist of the story, being sure to include implied ideas that are part of the story through not part of the text, and the links between events and ideas that unify the story

6.4.2. How does one get started with guided reading? Start off with reading aloud, shared reading, and other group activities, also, introduce independent reading

6.4.3. An adapted version of Guided Reading for middle-grade students: it's a four part approach which consists of strategy instruction, applying the strategies, independent activities, and assessment Based on reading levels, students are placed in small groups, where they are taught key comprehension strategies, students apply the strategies by reading high-interest trade books Guides in the small groups help students and request written responses in which students demonstrate their grasp of strategies

6.5. Directed Reading-Thinking Activity

6.5.1. DR-TA has been designed to help students begin to take responsibility for their own learning The teacher leads students to establish their own purposes for reading, to decide when these purposes have been fulfilled, and to attack unfamiliar words independently

6.5.2. The DR-TA works best when students have background knowledge to bring to the selection and can attack difficult words independently. If students lack background or have weak word analysis skills, then the guided reading lesson is a better choice

6.5.3. Stauffer structured a predict-read strategy that has the following facets: setting purposes: students have to know how to ask questions about text they are about to read, obtaining information: students have to know how to sift through reading material to get the information they need to answer a question, keeping goals in mind: students must be able to work within the constrains of their goals, nothing information that fits in with these goals and not being led astray by information that does not, Keeping personal feelings in bounds: students have to be able to suspend judgments when reading a piece that contains ideas which they might not agree with at least until they have finished the piece and have a good graph of what the author is saying, Considering options: students must be able to consider a number of choices as they make their predictions and also be flexible enough to change or refine a prediction in the light of new information

6.5.4. The major difference between DR-TA and Guided Reading is students are given a more active role in the DR-TA TO THE RIGHT AND TO TOP COLUMN THERE IS A SAMPLE DR-TA LESSON


7.1. Another approach to foster comprehension is cloze; which is as one reads a paragraph, supply the missing words

7.2. It's great for building comprehension. Filling in missing words forces a reader to use semantic and syntactic clues together with symbol-sound information and to predict meaning. It also activates the reader's background knowledge. The reader's knowledge of the world must be used to figure out which words should be put in the blanks.

7.3. Classic Cloze

7.3.1. In classic cloze, the teacher deletes words at random from a narrative or expository passage. The first and last sentences are left intact, and no proper nouns are removed; otherwise, every fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, ninth, or tenth word is deleted.

7.3.2. The teacher explains the purpose of cloze, gives tips such as the following for completing the exercise, and models the process of completing a cloze activity: read the whole exercise first, use all the clues given in a passage, read past the blank to the end of the sentences. Sometimes the best clues come after a blank. If necessary, read a sentence or two ahead to get additional clues. Spell as best you can. Most readers will be able to fill in fewer the half the blanks correctly. After you have filled in as many blanks as you can, reread the selection. Make any changes that you think are necessary.

7.4. Scoring Cloze

7.4.1. Exact replacement: there are two ways of scoring a cloze exercise. When it is used as test, only exact replacements are counted as correct. Scores are lower on cloze exercises than they are on multiple-choice activities; a score of 50 percent is adequate

7.4.2. Substitution Scoring: when cloze is used for instructional purposes, substitution scoring is used. A response is considered correct if it fits both semantically and syntactically

7.5. Discussion for Comprehension

7.5.1. Discussion enhances the value of cloze as a comprehension building technique

7.5.2. During the discussion, participants talk over their responses and give reasons for their choices, thus justifying their responses and clarifying their thinking processes

7.5.3. They also compare their answer; in the process, they broaden vocabulary, concepts, and experience and learn to consider and value different perspectives

7.6. Constructing Cloze Exercises

7.6.1. The first rule for constructing cloze exercises is to choose selections that are interesting so that students will want to complete them Regarding difficulty: it is affected by the following items; number of deletions: the fewer the deletions, the easier the task. Types of words deleted: content words such as nouns, verbs, adverbs, and adjectives are more difficult to replace than structure words such as articles, prepositions, and conjunctions, Location of deletion: deletions in the beginning of a sentence are more difficult to replace than those in the middle or end

7.6.2. Over time, the number of deletions can be increased, more content words can be omitted, and a proportion of words can be taken out of the beginnings of sentences.

7.6.3. The kinds of deletions will be dictatedby instructional objectives

7.6.4. If the teacher wants students to work on seeing relationships, she may delete structure words such as if, then, and, but, moreover, and however.

7.6.5. Deleting nouns and verbs and, to a lesser extent, adjectives and adverbs will place the focus on content. Deleting adjectives and adverbs could be a device for having students not how modifiers alter a selection

7.7. Variations on Cloze

7.7.1. Traditional cloze exercises are not recommended until students are in fourth grade or have achieved a fourth-grade reading level. Variations on cloze activities can be introduced earlier, which are word masking and modified cloze Word masking: Students follow along as a teacher reads a selection in a big book. During the second reading, some of the words are covered over. When the teacher gets to one of them, she pauses and the children predict what it might be. After they respond, the teacher uncovers the word and asks students whether they were correct Modified Cloze: which is also known as mazes, each blank is accompanied by answer choices so that students do not have to supply the word; they simply identify the best of three or four possible choices.

7.8. Discussion for Comprehension:


8.1. Step 1: introducing the text: students are led to create their own purposes for reading. The title of the selection, headings and subheads, illustrations, and/or the beginning paragraph are used to stimulate predictions about the content of the selection

8.1.1. Because the DR-TA is an active process, all students are encouraged to make a prediction or at least to indicate a preference for one of the predictions made by others. The teacher reads the predictions aloud and ask students to raise their hands to show which one they think is most likely

8.2. Step 2: reading the text: students read silently until they are able to evaluate their predictions; this might entail reading a single page, several pages, or a whole chapter. Students are encouraged to modify their initial predictions if they find information that runs counter to them

8.3. Step 3: discussion: This stage begins with the consideration of the class's predictions. After reading a portion of a text, students evaluate their predictions and identify which ones were correct and which ones required rethinking. During the discussion, students offer proof of the adequacy of their predictions or clarify disputed points by reading passages orally. The teacher develops comprehension, background, and concepts as the need arises and opportunities present themselves. If students do not respond to these prediction-making questions, the questions should be rephrases or altered. Make the question more specific and direct instead of what do you think will happen next? Predictions are written on the board, overhead, or IWB and students select the ones they believe are best or most probably

8.4. Step 4 and Step 5: Revisiting the text and Extending the text: are the same as step 4 and 5 of the guided reading lesson

8.5. Step 6: Evaluation and Review: Note students' silent reading, especially signs of difficulty, and students' comprehension during discussion. Discuss with students how their predictions worked out and what they did if a prediction was not working out

8.6. It should be used with both non-fiction and fiction


9.1. The ability to evaluate what one hears and reads has never been more important

9.1.1. Children who read critically judge what they read. This judgment is not a mere opinion but an evaluation based on either internal or external standards

9.2. Critical reading is an affective as well as a cognitive skill.

9.2.1. To read critically, students must be able to suspend judgment and consider other viewpoints. Some readers suffer from a malady that one educator called the "Gutenberg syndrome", which is that a statement appears in print, it must be true

9.3. Students have to challenge what they read and realize that a printed or online statement might be erroneous or simply be someone else''s opinion

9.4. To encourage critical reading, a teacher must create a spirit of inquiry.

9.4.1. So students must feel free to challenge statements, support controversial ideas, offer divergent view points, and venture statements that conflict with the majority view. When students see that their own ideas are accepted, they are better able to accept the ideas of others. The idea is not to turn students into mistrustful young cynics but to create judicious thinkers.

9.5. Uses of Language

9.5.1. Words are used in four main ways: to describe, to evaluate, to point out, and to interject

9.5.2. A key strategy in critical reading is to note whether words offer neutral descriptions, evaluations, or both See which words tell about the horse and which judge it. Guide students as they locate words in their texts that describe, judge or do both Note words that are used to judge

9.5.3. Introduce the concept of persuasive language by bringing in ads and package labels. Have students locate words that sell or persuade on online ads and in television and print ads-fresh, delicious, new, and imporved

9.6. Understanding Factual Statements and Opinions

9.6.1. Factual statements are those that can be verified through objective evidence or through analyzing language

9.6.2. To introduce the concepts of factual statements and opinions, place sentences similar to the following on the board, overhead, or interactive white board: we have twenty-five players on our soccer team, we have won 12 games in a row, our uniforms are red, soccer is the best sport

9.6.3. An opinion is a statement that tells how someone feels

9.6.4. To bolster this concept use these lessons and activities: recognizing the author's purpose

9.7. Recognizing the Author's Purpose

9.7.1. The three main purposes for writing are to inform, to entertain, and to persuade. Recognizing which one applies to a particular selection enables students to match their reading strategy to the selection. For example, knowing that a writer is attempting to persuade, they will look at the piece with a critical eye

9.7.2. To introduce the concept of purpose, read aloud an ad, or an editorial, an encyclopedia article, and a short story, and discuss each author's purpose

9.7.3. Students can also decide what their own purpose is before writing a piece

9.7.4. To extend the concept, have students predict the author's purpose before reading a selection and then discuss their predictions after reading

9.7.5. For each book report that students complete, have them identify the author's purpose

9.7.6. Bring in persuasive pieces, and help the class see what persuasive techniques are being used

9.8. Drawing Logical Conclusions

9.8.1. A conclusion is a type of inference Drawing a conclusion usually entails examining several facts or details and coming to some sort of reasoned judgment based on the information Students should be shown that they should reach the most likely conclusion while keeping an open mind because other conclusions are possible

9.8.2. To introduce drawing logical conclusions, model the process and provide guided practice Stress the need to consider the evidence very carefully, when students apply the skill to all content area

9.9. Judging Sources

9.9.1. Some sources are better than others

9.9.2. Three main criteria are used to judge a source: whether the source has expert knowledge about the subject, whether the information is up to date, and whether the source is unbiased Encourage students to examine their textbooks to see whether they are written by experts and are up to date. Discuss the issue of author bias, for instance, talk over why a book written by someone who works for a coal company might be considered to be written by an expert but could be biased in favor of the coal industry

9.9.3. Regarding the internet, students might also determine what URL tells about a site. edu: educational, gov: governmental, organizaitonal: org, commerical: com, a tilde ~ indicates the address is the work of an individual

9.10. Slanted Writing

9.10.1. Slanted or biased writing uses emotionally charged words and specially chosen details to create an unfairly favorable or unfavorable impression about a person, place, object, or idea. Show students how words and details can be selected so as to shape readers' opinions. Discuss why it is important to recognize slanted writing. They should know of the techniques that signifies slanted writing. They must be able to detect it as they are reading.

9.10.2. Keep slanted writing handy, to share and discuss with the class Have students look for examples of slanted writing in why they themselves write and to bring stuff they find too of slanted writing



10.1. To help students grasp the concept of judging sources for fairness, help them develop a set of questions that they might use to assess printed sources and Web sites

10.1.1. Is the source up to date? Who is the author? Is the author unbiased? Is there any reason that the author would be in favor of one side or one position? Is the writing fair, or does it seem to be slanted? Does the author give enough proof for all conclusion? Who is the publisher? Is it a well-known company, an educational institution, a company or an individual? Is the Web site an educational, governmental, organizational, or commercial site, or is it the site of an individual

10.2. Extending the concepts of factual statements and opinions: This is an activity that begins with presenting the words: good, bad, worse, terrible, wonderful, and awful. Ask students to use these and other signal words in differentiating between factual statements and opinions

10.2.1. Introduce the concept of verifying factual statements. Explain to students that factual statements can be proved in some way by measuring, weighing, observing, touching, hearing, counting, and so on. Bring in something. Discuss how each statement might be proved. Have students make other factual statements and tell how they might prove them, that is whether they would mainly count, measure, weight, touch, listen, or observe to prove statements Let students examine an object and make at least 5 factual statements about it based on counting, measuring, weighing, touching, listening, observing, or checking a reference book. Then ask them write down their personal opinions about that object. This might be an opportunity for them to be especially creative and imaginative Ask students whether a particular statement in a book is factual or an opinion