Remediation Process

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Remediation Process by Mind Map: Remediation Process

1. Autism

1.1. a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

1.1.1. Assistive Technology: - Visual Supports (pictures, dry erase boards, etc.) - Computers - Weighted Vests

1.1.2. Intervention Strategies: - Allow wait time between asking a question and receiving an answer - Adjust volume to suit child's comfort level - Use visual supports to assist language - Use scripts

1.1.3. Case Study D.T. Male, Age 10 Autism, seizure disorder D.T. was verbal with limited language skills. He could sing in complete sentences (echolalic) but communicated using one or two word phrases. He communicated mostly by pointing. When he did speak, his enunciation was poor except when he was angry at which time the word would be clear. He displayed self-stimulatory behavior in the form of rocking, hand-turning, and hand flapping. His gross motor skills were below normal and he wore leg braces. His fine motor skills were poor and he was unable to tie his shoes. His sleep was good but he was defiant and unable to calm down at bedtime. He showed no interest in other children and his eye contact was poor. His seizures had begun at age two. He was taking medications for seizures and experienced one every ten to fourteen days. After five weeks with REI, his mother reported that he was showing more caring towards others and his eye contact improved significantly. He began imitating other children (speech and facial expressions) and exhibited more interactive play with others. He was noticeably more calm and had fewer tantrums. His speech therapist noticed that he was able to talk clearer and that he began using 2-3 word phrases. His attention span improved and he was more able to stay with the lessons. He listened to the recording at bedtime and showed an improved ability to calm himself down and make the transition to sleep. He would often fall asleep half way through second side of tape. After twelve weeks D.T. continued listening to the REI Program rhythms at bedtime and he would insist on listening to it while going to sleep. His school teacher and principal noticed improvements in his language skills, responsiveness, memory, and his level of understanding. They enrolled him in a regular classroom for the coming school year. He had not had any seizures for the previous four weeks. His doctor began to taking him off his medication. His language skills and vocabulary continued to improve, along with his social skills.

2. Deaf-Blindness

2.1. simultaneous hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

2.1.1. Assistive Technologies: - Perkins Braille Writer - Large display devices - Magnification tools

2.1.2. Intervention Strategies: - Hand over hand guidance - Adapted signs - Tactile representation

3. Deafness

3.1. a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification.

3.1.1. Assistive Technologies: - Hearing aids - Cochlear implants - CART system

3.1.2. Intervention Strategies: - Speak naturally - Make sure child can see lips and expressions - Use visual aids

4. Intellectual Disability

4.1. significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

4.1.1. Assistive Technologies: - Communicators - Screen magnifiers - Personal digital assistants - Audio books - Smart boards

4.1.2. Intervention Strategies: - Repeat instructions or directions frequently - Use mnemonics - Remove distractions - Explicitly teach organizational skills

5. Emotional Distrubance

5.1. A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.

5.1.1. Assistive Technologies: - Point sheets and behavior charts - -

5.1.2. Intervention Technologies: - Use tangible rewards - Positive behavioral interventions - Keep classroom organized - Keep instruction simple and structured

6. Hearing Impairment

6.1. an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of ‘deafness'.

6.1.1. Assistive Technologies: - Audio loop - Infrared system and personal receiver - Sound amplifier

6.1.2. Intervention Strategies: - Keep instruction brief - Use multiple ways to explain things - Provide transcripts of audio information - Present lecture info in a visual format

7. Developmental Delay

7.1. a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development

7.1.1. Assistive Technologies: - Memory aids - Textured objects - Visual cards - Computer tablets

7.1.2. Intervention Strategies: - Have a schedule for active and quiet times - Give students manipulatives to use - Incorporate singing and dancing into many activities

7.1.3. Case Study: I had a student last year that was developmentally delayed and although he was in school for at least a year in Kindergarten, he never received support or referred for therapy but he was recommended to receive learning support in Grade 1. He had speech and language issues as well as psycho-motor difficulties. He would have benefited greatly from early intervention when he was between 3 and 5 years old. By the end of first semester in Grade 1, he was tested and referred to both speech and occupational therapy. Unfortunately, the support services here are either not of good quality or non-existent. Despite all that, this little boy loved coming to school and loved learning. He had the most amazing attitude and never once gave up and always tried his best. It was pure pleasure working with him and in many ways, he was quite inspirational. He never once showed how challenging it was for him although when I did ask him, he said it made him sad. I remember one specific incident when his Dad told him he had to go to the 'doctor' (the occupational therapist) and he refused to because he didn't want to miss school. I had to speak to him and explain why he had to go and see the 'doctor' and he complied willingly after that. He made tremendous progress with the one-to-one and small group support with phonemic awareness, phonics, reading, writing, handwriting, math, fine motor as well as ELL support. Even though he still lagged behind his peers by the end of the year, he had made tremendous progress and gained so much confidence. It's important to know and remind ourselves that all students especially the ones who struggle as to how much they want to succeed as much as their peers if not more.

8. Multiple Disabilities

8.1. [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.

8.1.1. Assistive Technologies: - Programmable keyboard - Smart Boards - Writing support tools

8.1.2. Intervention Strategies: - Give students choices - Use Calendar Boxes - Experiential based literacy

9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

9.1.1. Intervention Strategies: - Special seating arrangements to develop posture - Instruction focused on development of fine and gross motor skills - Awareness of medical condition and its affects on the student

9.1.2. Assistive Technologies: - Screen reading software - Speech recognition software - Academic software packages

10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that— (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis [a kidney disorder], rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

10.1.1. Assistive Technologies: - Dictating machines - Digital assistants - Organizational aids

10.1.2. Intervention Strategies: - Allow extra time - Teach organization techniques - Seat student closer to the teacher - Post a daily schedule

11. Specific Learning Disability

11.1. a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations.

11.1.1. Assistive Technologies: - Alternative keyboards - Audio books - Information managers - Word prediction programs

11.1.2. Intervention Strategies: - Direct instruction - Sequential multi-sensory approach - Supply regular, quality feedback

11.1.3. Case Study Vanessa and her twin brother, Steve, are both studying photography at their local college. They are both dyslexic and highly creative in their own ways. As well as the practical elements, their course requires them to take notes, make oral presentations and conduct library based research. Their assessment for this term requires them to develop a portfolio of written evidence to demonstrate their understanding of the theoretical aspects of their subject. Although they are both dyslexic, they experience the condition in very different ways: Steve is a poor reader and really struggles with the physical act of writing, but he loves the technical details of the course and is a charismatic and confident presenter. Vanessa, on the other hand, has little difficulty with reading or writing, but is weak at spelling and has a poor short-term memory. She really struggles to retain the factual information from the course and to manage her resources and time. She lacks confidence in front of people she doesn’t know very well as, unlike her brother, she trips over her words and has trouble finding the exact words to express herself clearly – especially when stressed. Following discussions with their course tutor and the disability officer, the following support was put in place to support them on their course: Steve: A scribe to take notes in theory sessions which alleviated the pressure, freeing Steve to attend and participate more fully in class; Use of a digital recorder to back up the notes; Extra time (25%) in the exams to allow for his slow reading; Use of a PC installed with speech recognition software and a separate room for exams. Vanessa: A spellchecker installed on her laptop; Extra time (25%) in exams to accommodate her poor short-term memory; Use of a digital recorder to make notes to herself as an aide memoire; Vanessa was allowed to submit a video of herself delivering presentations rather than having to do it ‘live’ in front of an audience; Weekly sessions with a specialist tutor to check her understanding of the course work and help her prioritise her work and meet deadlines.

12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

12.1.1. Assistive Technologies - augmentative and alternative communication devices

12.1.2. Intervention Strategies: - Use interactive communication - Be patient and allow student to speak at own pace - Allow student to tape lectures - Ensure constant access to assistive technologies

13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

13.1.1. Assistive Technologies: - Small voice recorders - Handheld computers - Voice recognition software

13.1.2. Intervention Strategies: - Reduce distractions in the student's work area - Ask the student to summarize information orally - Use cue words to alert student to pay attention - Establish a nonverbal cueing system

14. Visual Impairment

14.1. an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

14.1.1. Assistive Technologies: - Adapted eating and drinking utensils - Voice Output devices - Screen reader on computer

14.1.2. Intervention Strategies: - Use simple and clear visual aids - Reduce distracting noises - Make changes slowly - Link touch to visual input