IT & E-leadership

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IT & E-leadership by Mind Map: IT & E-leadership

1. What are successful ICT leadership?

1.1. Successful school leadership

1.1.1. Leadership has effects on student learning,quality of curriculum, and teachers' instructions.

1.1.2. Administrators provide most of the leadership in school,but other potential sources of leadership exist

1.1.3. A core set of leadership practices form the 'basics' of successful leadership

1.1.3.1. Setting directions

1.1.3.2. Developing people

1.1.3.3. Developing the organization

1.1.4. Successful school leaders respond productively to chanenges and opportunities created by the accountability-orientated policy context

1.1.4.1. Creating and sustaining a competitive school

1.1.4.2. Empowering others to make significant decisions

1.1.4.3. Providing instruction guidance

1.1.5. Successful school leaders respond productively to the opportunities and challenges of educating diverse group of students

1.1.5.1. Building powerful forms oof teaching and learning

1.1.5.2. Creating strong communities in schools

1.1.5.3. Expanding the proportion of students' social capital valued by the schools

1.1.5.4. Nurturing the development of family educational values

1.2. The SCALE-CCR mapping framework of enabled innovation for learning

1.2.1. Nature of innovation

1.2.1.1. Disruptive

1.2.1.2. Radical

1.2.1.3. Incremental

1.2.2. Implementation phase

1.2.2.1. Mainstream

1.2.2.2. Scale

1.2.2.3. Pilot

1.2.3. Target

1.2.3.1. Wide range of actors

1.2.3.2. Multiple actors

1.2.3.3. Single actors

1.2.4. Impact area

1.2.4.1. Organization

1.2.4.2. Service

1.2.4.3. Process

1.2.5. Access level

1.2.5.1. Cross-border

1.2.5.2. Regional/National

1.2.5.3. Local

1.3. Key elements developing creative classroom

1.3.1. Content, curricula

1.3.2. Assessment

1.3.3. Laerning practices

1.3.4. Teaching practices

1.3.5. Organization

1.3.6. Leadership, values

1.3.7. Connectedness

1.3.8. Infrastructure

2. Aims of the module

2.1. a) To provide students with necessary knowledge and working methods to be able to implement local ICT policies and strategie

2.2. b) Discuss contemporary leadership issues

3. Existing Policies

3.1. Analyze Educational Policy

3.1.1. Identify three components

3.1.1.1. Problem definition

3.1.1.1.1. How well defined?

3.1.1.1.2. What are the characteristics?

3.1.1.2. Policy goals

3.1.1.2.1. What are the goals?

3.1.1.3. Policy instruments

3.1.1.3.1. Are they adequate?

3.1.1.3.2. Are they practical?

3.1.2. Ways of Anlyazing

3.1.2.1. Normative

3.1.2.1.1. Values / Ethical principles

3.1.2.2. Legal

3.1.2.2.1. Constitutionality, consistency with statute & legal convention

3.1.2.3. Logical

3.1.2.3.1. Internal, vertical & horizontal consistency

3.1.2.4. Empirical

3.1.2.4.1. Impacts & effects, costs & administration

3.2. Understand Educational Policy

3.2.1. Definition

3.2.2. Features

3.2.2.1. Usually tackle sets of smaller problems

3.2.2.2. Usually tackle a sets of small problems

3.2.2.3. Formulated continuously

3.2.2.4. Analytically

3.2.2.5. Explicit

3.2.2.6. Formal

3.2.3. Functions

3.2.3.1. Deal with Problems/Opportunities

3.2.3.2. Guidance for solutions, plan, proposals, etc.

3.2.4. Three Components

3.2.4.1. Problem definition

3.2.4.1.1. Rarely articulated in great detail

3.2.4.1.2. Wide research for problem background & rationale

3.2.4.2. Policy goals

3.2.4.2.1. Generalized

3.2.4.2.2. Specified by debates

3.2.4.3. Policy instrument

3.2.4.3.1. Programs & Activities

3.2.5. Consistency

3.2.5.1. Relationship among components

3.2.5.1.1. Internal consistency

3.2.5.1.2. Vertical consistency

3.2.5.2. Relationship between Policies

3.2.5.2.1. Horizontal consistency

3.3. nation-wide level

3.3.1. USA

3.3.1.1. 1st Educational Technology Plan (1996): Ready for 21 Century: Meeting Technology Literacy Challenge

3.3.1.2. 2nd Educational Technology Plan (2004): e-Learning: World-Class Education

3.3.1.3. 3rd Educational Technology Plan (by 2020): Use of Technical Media Learning

3.3.2. UK

3.3.2.1. 1997: Connecting the Learning Society: National Grid for Learning

3.3.2.2. 2004: Fulfilling the Potential

3.3.3. HK

3.3.3.1. 1998 - 2002: Information Technology for Learning in a New Era

3.3.3.2. 2004: Empowering Learning & Teaching with Information Technology

3.3.3.3. 2008: Right Technology at the Right Time for the Right Task

3.3.3.4. 2014: Realising IT Potential and Unleashing the Learning Power

3.3.3.5. Proposed actions

3.3.3.5.1. systemwide 24 actions

3.3.3.5.2. school level 23 actions

3.3.3.5.3. classroom level

3.3.3.5.4. Personal review on HK policies

3.3.4. Singapore

3.3.4.1. MP1 1997-2002 Build the foundation

3.3.4.1.1. ICT training for teachers

3.3.4.1.2. IT infrastructure

3.3.4.1.3. educational software and resources for related subjects

3.3.4.1.4. Achievement: ICT becomes an acceptable tools in teaching and learning.

3.3.4.2. MP2 2003-2008 Seeding innovation

3.3.4.2.1. Gave autonomy

3.3.4.2.2. Establish baseline of ICT standard for students

3.3.4.2.3. Generate innovative practices

3.3.4.3. MP3 2009-2014 Strengthening and scaling

3.3.4.3.1. Orientation of innovation: intended outcomes 21st century skills

3.3.4.3.2. Professional development

3.3.4.4. Transformation pathway

3.3.4.4.1. Curriculum & assessment

3.3.4.4.2. Professional development

3.3.4.4.3. Infrastructure for learning

3.3.4.4.4. Research and development

3.3.5. similarities

3.3.5.1. Similar trajectory

3.3.5.1.1. ICT infrastructure

3.3.5.1.2. Teachers' Professional development

3.3.5.1.3. Curriculum Reforms

3.3.5.1.4. Community culture building

3.3.5.2. Similar leadership style

3.3.5.2.1. centralized top-down scaling

3.3.5.2.2. centralized bottom-up scaling

3.3.6. differences

3.3.6.1. HK: focus on the five key aspects

3.3.6.1.1. a) IT infrastructure b) teacher competence c) digital resource& IT support d) community culture building e) e-leadership building

3.3.6.2. Singapore: focus on SDL and CoL

3.3.6.2.1. ... But Singapore has chosen just two of these to focus on from 2009 – 2014...their entire educational system can come together with these two goal.

3.3.7. Definition of policy

3.3.7.1. a) Public policy can be defined as a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem or interrelated set of problems.

4. Why implement ICT policies?

4.1. The ultimate result of using ICT is to facilitate the learning goals of the curriculum reform

4.2. the role of technology

4.2.1. a) Computers are seen as catalysts, enabling desired changes in education to occur. In the current policy, IT is ‘ lever to support and advance the Education Reform initiatives

4.3. Technological trend is reshaping the learning environment

4.3.1. a) Increased use of web-based environment for collaboration and knowledge-sharing - blogs, wikis, and RSS feeds

4.3.2. b) M-learning – pedagogical applications "learning anywhere, anytime“

4.3.3. c) New learning environment - more flexible, interactive, and student-centered - call for holistic strategy to respond to changing demands at different levels

4.3.4. two major e-challenges: effective resources planning to capture the opportunities that evolving technology promises; and change management to embrace a new IT-enabled environment

4.4. Curriculum and ICT policy

4.4.1. The curriculum reform

4.4.1.1. 8 Key Learning Areas

4.4.1.2. 9 generic skills

4.4.2. The UNESCO ICT competency framework

4.4.2.1. Three stages of education reform

4.4.2.1.1. i. Technology literacy: teachers’ competence is related to

4.4.2.1.2. ii. Knowledge deepening: teachers’ competence related to knowledge deepening include:

4.4.2.1.3. iii. Knowledge creation: teachers who show competence with the knowledge creation approach will be able to

4.4.2.2. Six components of educational system

4.4.2.2.1. i. Policy and vision ii. Curriculum and assessment iii. Pedagogy iv. ICT v. Organization and administration vi. Teacher professional development

5. How to implement ICT policies?

5.1. Changing theories

5.1.1. Diffusion Model

5.1.1.1. Definition of Diffusion

5.1.1.1.1. 'Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over times among the members of a social system.

5.1.1.2. Attributes

5.1.1.2.1. Relative Advantage

5.1.1.2.2. Compatibility

5.1.1.2.3. Complexity

5.1.1.2.4. Trialability

5.1.1.2.5. Observability

5.1.1.3. Diffusion of Innovations

5.1.1.3.1. Diffusion Process

5.1.1.3.2. Adopter Categories

5.1.2. Education Epidemic

5.1.2.1. Transformation through innovation

5.1.2.1.1. The first transformation-creating the right climate

5.1.2.1.2. The second transformation-disciplining innovation

5.1.2.1.3. The third transformation- devising and implementing a lateral strategy

5.1.2.1.4. The fourth transformation-using ICT laterally

5.1.2.1.5. The fifth transformation- making a learning system

5.1.2.2. Implementation

5.1.2.2.1. Creating the right climate

5.1.2.2.2. Disciplining innovation

5.1.2.2.3. Devising and implementing a lateral strategy

5.1.2.2.4. Using ICT laterallly

5.1.3. Ecological Model

5.1.3.1. Ecological approach for ICT transform education

5.1.3.1.1. Co-evolution (a gardening anlaogy)

5.2. Comparison of three systems: Ontario; Alberta; Finland

5.2.1. a) Ontario system

5.2.1.1. i. Respect for staff and for professional knowledge ii. Comprehensiveness iii. Coherence and alignment through partnership iv. Targeted additional resources v. Testing and accountability vi. Political leadership

5.2.2. b) Alberta system

5.2.2.1. i. Develop powerful forms of collaboration among schools ii. Increase parents and community engagement iii. Establish available assessment to identify differences

5.2.3. c) Finland system

5.2.3.1. i. Well prepared theoretically ii. All the teachers are motivated iii. An open environment for communication

6. Multilevels of ICT leadership

6.1. Building the architecture for learning and innovation

6.1.1. 1. Aims of AoL

6.1.1.1. a) Investigate & elaborate the mechanisms by which connections between communities mediate teachers' opportunities to learn in response to district policy

6.1.2. 2. Definition of AoL

6.1.2.1. a) Organizational environment/Supportive conditions provided by District Leaders that fosters Teacher's opportunities to learn new ideas & practices required for ambitious reforms through interactions within & among communities

6.1.3. 3. Three major components of the alignment of community of practices

6.1.3.1. a) District Leader

6.1.3.1.1. i. create reifications (Boundary objects) shared with the diverse communities ii. establish alignment between/among communities iii. provide opportunities for individuals from different communities to interact with each other

6.1.3.2. b) Boundary Practices

6.1.3.2.1. i. Regular on-going forums for mutual engagement for individuals from different communities to sustain a connection across boundaries

6.1.3.3. c) Broker

6.1.3.3.1. i. Individuals who use their memberships in multiple communities to carry practices between them

6.1.4. Comparative study of two sets of schools

6.2. Multi-level and interconnected educational ecology

6.2.1. a) Global: Social, economic and culture change

6.2.2. b) National / Region

6.2.2.1. i. Policies to promote ICT-enhanced learning ii. 21st century skills

6.2.3. c) School

6.2.3.1. i. Local plans and strategies

6.2.4. d) Classroom

6.2.4.1. i. ICT brings new pedagogical setting ii. Student-centered, inquiry-oriented collaborative practice.

6.3. Teachers’ leadership in e-learning:

6.3.1. a) formal leadership roles

6.3.1.1. i. head of department ii. subject co-ordinator iii. key stage co-ordinator

6.3.2. b) informal leadership roles

6.3.2.1. i. Coaching ii. Leading a new team iii. Setting up action research groups

6.4. Build a learning organization: A comparative study of organizational learning in two schools

6.4.1. Learning activities

6.4.2. School leaders

6.4.3. IT groups

6.4.4. Teachers

6.4.5. Achievements

6.5. Conclusions from the comparative study

6.5.1. i. Conclusion 1: A top-down driven change program with a clear vision and a clear path change strategy is not sufficient for transforming the schools’ organization.

6.5.2. ii. Conclusion 2: Spelling out in as much detail as possible the planned change process is not sufficient for transforming the schools’ organization.

6.5.3. iii. Conclusion 3: By providing adequate resources and training programs for IT-implementation was not sufficient for transforming the schools’ organization.

6.5.4. iv. Conclusion 4: Technology itself does not change organization; rather the effective integration of IT requires an organization to be the engine for IT-adoption.

7. How to achieve sustaining leadership?

7.1. School routines provide an important mechanism for sustaining leadership

7.1.1. School routines

7.1.1.1. i. hiring teachers, conducting teacher evaluations, and planning school improvement ii. the routines are designed and implemented locally by school leaders and teachers iii. contribute to stability across time in organizational work practice, help to socialize new organizational members, and reduce conflict about how work gets done and who has responsibility for what iv. An organizational routines allows us to understand school work practice as constituted in the interactions among school staff

7.2. Definition of sustaining leadership

7.2.1. Sustaining leadership means the constancy in work practice instructed by the unchanged organizational routines

7.3. Planned changes and unplanned changes