Race in Latin America Part Two

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Race in Latin America Part Two by Mind Map: Race in Latin America Part Two

1. Race in Argentina

1.1. Racial Theories

1.1.1. The theories of many European scholars regarding race were highly influential in Argentina These theories aimed to prove that the "white race" was indeed to superior to all other "races"; Indians, Blacks, and mulattoes were discriminated by Argentineans as a result Racial Theories were embraced by the Hispanic American elite until the 1920's

1.1.2. Miscegenation with the Indians and the blacks was looked down upon by the creole elite in Argentina The racial issue pervaded numerous essays in Hispanic America that discussed the Indian "problem," the black "question," the consequences of "cross-breeding," or the possible emergence of a new Latin American race Argentina looked to the United States as a model for how to develop as nation; the U.S. developed because it was "a nation of Anglo-Saxon immigrants in which the Indians had been pushed aside and the blacks segregated"

1.2. Racial Policies

1.2.1. Only immigrants from Europe were permitted to settle in Argentina; nonwhites were restricted from immigrating Tensions rose between Argintineans and European immigrants were considered to be elite; Riots and clashes between the two groups became a common occurence This lead to the racist tendencies of Argentineans evolving into xenophobia; A strong sense of nationalism began to emerge

1.2.2. Indians were considered the most challenging enemy of Argentinean civilization until the early 1880's General Julio A. Roca commanded a regiment that subdued or exterminated entire aboriginal (Indian) groups; served to expand the Argentinean frontier westward and southward By 1890, most of Argentina's Indians had either been killed or enslaved; enslaved meant they were forced to serve in the military, taken by soldiers as concubines, assigned to sugar mills as peons, or sent to Buenos Aires' families as servants

1.3. Popular Reaction

1.3.1. Racial theories dominated the cultural and political landscape of Argentina; the popular sentiment of Argentineans was that they valued miscegenation with Europeans and the preservation of civilized society that could only be achieved the white race There was a common belief perpetuated by racial theories that "the darker would vanish and only the white would survive" "The white" referred to the mixture of the various ethnic groups belonging to the white race , together with fittest individuals of the darker races; these individual would be considered to have the necessary qualities for integration into the superior race- they would thus "whiten"

2. Race in Cuba

2.1. Racial Theories

2.1.1. Cuba's creole elite hoped to diminish the Afro-Cuban population through European immigration and miscegenation with those immigrants Cuba could have gone a different path in how it chose to nation build; a prominent leaders named Jose Marti was a "militant anti-racist"who believed that "Cuban means more than White, more than Black, more than Mulatto"

2.2. Racial Poilicies

2.2.1. Cuba's Creole elite chose to follow Argentina's model of nation building; this was surprising due to the difference of the racial makeup of Cuba's population Illegal racial discrimination in clubs, restaurants, and public parks was not officially opposed

2.2.2. The constitution of 1901 gave nonwhites equality and universal male suffrage; however; there were no programs designed to help slaves that were freed as recently as 1886 The public school system was not segregated, but discrimination did occur at the secondary schooling level

2.3. Popular Reaction

2.3.1. The Creole elite saw the further decline of the population of the black population to 30 percent(according to the census of 1907) as signs of progress accompanying the rapid increase of production and trade between 3 thousand and 4 thousand Afro-Cubans were massacred by the Cuban army and "zealous volunteers"; was a result of the growing tensions between nonwhites and rhe creole elite that had been discriminating against them

3. Race in Brazil

3.1. Racial Theories

3.1.1. Unlike Argentina and Cuba, Mulattoes and blacks in Brazil were not considered to be genetically inferior to whites One of the main reasons for this was the low population of whites living in Brazil; The census of 1872 listed 38% of the population as "white", 20% as "black", and the remainder as "mulatto"

3.1.2. The liberal Ideology of Brazilian intellectuals had a profound effect on the younger generation between the years of 1870 and 1888 Liberal Goals such as disestablishment of the church, secularization of the schools and cemeteries, institution of civil marriage, and decentralization of government were realized between the years 1889 and 1892 Due to focus being primarily aimed at the issues previously mentioned, the concept of race was seldom discussed; slavery was talked about instead

3.2. Racial Policies

3.2.1. Slavery was abolished in 1888 as a result of the liberal ideology of Brazilian Intellectuals; led the Brazilian population to reform The practice of slavery was not racially motivated; defenders of slavery argued that it was simply a necessary evil in order to maintain the economy Slavery owners in Brazil always said that Brazilian slaves were physically better off than free workers in Europe

3.2.2. Gilberto Freyre was a figure that contributed greatly to the study of the Afro-Brazilian and became a leading figure in the redefinition of Brazil's racial identity. Freyre's "casa grande e Senzala" brought forth a new possible answer to the question of whether generations of miscegenation had done irreparable damage Freye argued that Brazil's "ethnic potpourri" was an immense asset; he quoted studies by Brazilian scientists that showed that "the Indian and the Negro had made important contributions to a healthier diet and a more practical style of dress for Brazilians"

3.3. Popular Reaction

3.3.1. Practically no one believed in the theory of biological inferiority; abolitionists rarely had to rebut racist creeds

3.3.2. The opponents of abolition occasionally doubted the humanity of the Afro-Brazilian slave; they rarely suggested that Afro-Brazilians were biologically destined to serve

3.3.3. Congressional Deputies Andrade Bezerra and Cincinnato Braga introduced a bill to prohibit entry into Brazil of "human beings of the black race"

4. Immigration in Latin America

4.1. Immigration in Argentina

4.1.1. Argentina only allowed immigrants from Europe to come into the country; people of color were prohibited Over time, Argentineans would begin to miscegenate with the European immigrants, creating a nation whose "racial" makeup was utterly "white" The Indian and Black population no longer had any

4.1.2. Immigration at first was seen by Argentineans to be beneficial for the economy Russian, Italian, and Jewish immigrants began to set up businesses and communities of their own These immigrants at first did not take up the cultural customs of the Argentineans; Argentineans were instilled with a strong sense of nationalism and grew hostile towards the immigrants

4.2. Immigration in Cuba

4.2.1. Along with blacks and mulattoes, a considerable amount of Chinese immigrants were living in Cuba A law imposed on Cuba by the United States prevented Chinese immigrants from coming and settling in Cuba

4.2.2. The Creole elite in Cuba hoped to diminish the black population (which made 33% of Cuba's overall population according to the census of 1899) through further immigration The same law that prohibited Chinese immigration also restricted the immigration of non-whites into Cuba The new law encouraged the settlement of families from Europe and the Canary Islands, as well as the immigration of day laborers from Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Northern Italy

4.3. Immigration in Brazil

4.3.1. The majority of liberal abolitionists in Brazil saw European immigrants as the solution to the post-abolition labor problem Some abolitionists believed miscegenation with the European immigrants would serve to "whiten" the Brazilian population and therefore "upgrade" them This notion contradicted the belief held by many Brazilians that the theory of biological inferiority did not hold up

4.3.2. Abolitionists worried about the large, illiterate, unskilled mass represented by the slaves Prominent abolitionists Joaquim Nabuco and Jose Do Patricinio wrote that "we must abolish slavery because its continued existence repels potential European Immigrants, whom we badly need.

4.3.3. Congressional deputies Andrade Bezerra and Cincinnato Braga introduced a bill to prohibit entry into Brazil of "human beings of the black race"