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PRE-INTERMEDIATE B Semester ◑ω◐  by Mind Map: PRE-INTERMEDIATE B Semester  ◑ω◐ 

1. Countable and uncountable nouns

1.1. Countable nouns

1.1.1. Countable nouns are individual objects, people, places, etc. which can be counted.

1.1.2. Singular form My dog is playing

1.1.3. Plural form add "s" My dogs are hungry.

1.2. Uncountable nouns

1.2.1. Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them.

1.2.2. We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular : We use a singular verb

2. Modal verbs

2.1. Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs

2.1.1. Simple Modal Verbs Can to express general ability to express possibility / impossibility to ask a permission (informal). I can fly Must to express certainty. to make a strong recommendation. to express necessity. You must be tired now, you have worked all day long. May to make requests to ask or to give a permission (formal) to express possibility May I make a phone call?

2.1.2. Past forms of Modal Verbs And Their Function Might to give or ask permission, or possibility in the past, because it is the past form of “May” to express future or present possibility and probability Interchangeably with “May” quite often with no difference in meaning. It might rain tomorrow. Should to ask or give advice or recommendation. often after these verbs: suggest, propose, recommend, insist, demand. If you think that if person is likely to do something with less certainty or accidentally, you can use this structure: If + you + should+ verb or Should + you + verb Don’t worry if I should be late tonight Would to express future in the past because it is the past form of “Will” to express unreal action in the present to ask someone to do something (formal), (structure: If + you + would+ verb) I would be very frightened if someone pointed a gun at me. Could to express general ability in the past, because it is the past form of the “Can” to express possible future actions similar to “May and Might” in meaning to express unreal or impossible actions to make a request or ask something My grandfather could not swim

3. Future arrangements

3.1. Other ways of referring to the future

3.1.1. To be about to + infinitive

3.1.2. To be on the point of + -ing Actions or events which we expect to happen in the immediate future

3.2. The future continuous (will +be-ing)

3.2.1. Events or actions that will be in progress at specific time in the future

3.2.2. Predicted orexpected trends In the 21st century, people will be living to the age of 130.

3.3. The future perdfect simple (will+have+past participle)

3.3.1. Actions or events that will already be completed by a certain time in the furure By the year 2008, I’ll have left school and started work.

3.4. Going to Future (be+going to+infinitive)

3.4.1. Intentions or olans

3.4.2. predictions based on present evidendce or knowleds My sister’s going to have a baby.

3.5. Future simple (will + infinitive)

3.5.1. future facts I’ll be 21 next month.

3.5.2. predictions or expectations

3.5.3. Instant decisions about the immediate future

3.6. Shall

3.6.1. Shall is sometimes used instead of will after I and we.

3.6.2. Shall must be used to start questions which are suggestions and offers.

4. Agreements and Disagreements

4.1. Agreement (you like the idea)

4.1.1. that´s a good point

4.1.2. that´s absoluty true

4.1.3. that´s exactly what I think.

4.2. Disagreements (you dislike, not true)

4.2.1. It´s not true

4.2.2. i refuce it

4.2.3. I don´t believe.

5. Adjective (-ED/-ING)

5.1. -ING ----The Couse

5.1.1. Most sequels are disappointing

5.2. -ED ----The effect

5.2.1. He´s such a monotonunous speaker. I was so bored.

6. Conditional type 1

6.1. If+ Simple present, subject +will +Verb

6.1.1. If i study hard, I will pass the exam.

6.2. It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.