Learning Theories Map

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Learning Theories Map by Mind Map: Learning Theories Map

1. 1910-1920

1.1. Lee Cronbach: Born 1916

1.1.1. Contemporaries: Bloom, Hastings, Madaus

1.2. John Broadus Watson (1879-1958)

1.2.1. Background Horrible in school Arrested twice Doctorate in psychology, University of Chicago 1903 Taught at John Hopkins University in 1908

1.2.2. Aspects of Watson's Theory Opposed mentalistic concepts Used contiguity to explain learning Considered emotion to be just another example of classical conditioning Rejected the notion of individual differences Thought complex behaviors came about through combinations of identifiable reflexes Was a chief proponent of "nurture" and believed that all human differences were the result of learning Believed that practice strengthens learning

1.2.3. Father of "Behaviorism"

1.2.4. "Twelve infants"

1.3. Robert Gagne: Born 1916

1.3.1. Known for contribution to the systematic approach to Instructional Design- Gagne's Assumption (summarized below) *similar to Bloom's Taxonomy 1. Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes. 2. Events of learning operate on the learner in ways that constitute the conditions of learning. 3. The specific operations that constitute instructional events are different for each different type of learning outcome. 4. Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to be learned and a sequence of instruction.

2. 1920-1930

2.1. John Dewy (1859-1952)

2.1.1. Background Philosopher and psychologist One of the founders of Pragmatism philosophy One of the founders of functional psychology

2.1.2. Theories Theory of Experience (2 components) Experience and Education (1938) calls out Traditional and Progressive education and lays the framework for a Theory of Experience as the groundwork for education Continuity Interaction Learning must be based on experience and experimental method The educator must view teaching and learning as a continuous process of reconstructing experience Dewey also believed that experiences were an inherently social process and therefore, believed that quality learning experiences would often be social Education as Tribal Transmission as Society as Democracy as Culture Democracy and Education (1916) was a call to action to rethink education and to define the importance of it When newborns come they must be initiated into beliefs, experiences, etc. of the mature members, this is education. He focused on the necessity of teaching and learning for continued existence of society to help us not take conventional notions of ‘school’ and ‘education ‘ for granted. Dewey believed that society and democracy could only sustain with the young learning from the more experienced Thinking and Reflection Fostering thinking is the task of education School should seek ideas (unfinished) not facts (finished) Believed experience was the beginning of thinking - proponent of schools creating experiences and then encouraging thoughtful reflection on those experiences

2.2. Lee Cronbach

3. 1930-1940

3.1. Lev Vygotsky (1896 - 1934)

3.1.1. Background Russian-Jewish psychologist. Describe as having "Mozartian genius." Influenced by Karl Marx and Ivan Pavlov Died at 38 from tuberculosis. Works not published until after his death

3.1.2. Theories Social constructivism / social development theory Stress the role of social interaction in development of cognition. Children's learning and development are results of adult mediation through the engagement of age-appropiate activities Zone of Proximal Development Where learning optimally takes place distance between what one can independently solve and what could not solve even with assistance Awakened through an interaction with adult or more capable peer

3.1.3. Vygotsky on Behaviorism Considered it to be too limited because it does not put the learner inside a social context

3.1.4. Vygotsky / Piaget Major distinction is their interpretation of what comes first: learning or cognitive development Vygotsky has stronger stress on historical and social content, where parents/teachers can promote/accelerate development

3.2. Skinner

3.2.1. Background: born March 1904, Father was a Lawyer. Mother was a House Wife. In the beginning Skinner wanted to be a writer of poetry and short stories and then started writing articles. This ended up not a fit for him.

3.2.2. Skinner went back to school in 1930. He received his masters in Psychology at Harvard. He stayed there for research until he died in 1990. Skinner created a very strong believe that we could not understand the mind itself. We couldn't fathom to understand what the mind does. But what we can do is observe. We can observe behaviors.

3.2.3. 1938, Skinner coined the term "operant conditioning". This term was branched from Thorndike. This term means, changing the behavior with the use of reinforcement. This reinforcement is given after the desired response. There are three forms of Reponses/Operants: 1. Neutral 2. Reinforcers 3. Punishers

3.2.4. 1948, Skinner continued to study Operant Conditioning where he then created the "Skinner Box" (what he is most known for) This box was an experiment/observation of the behaviors of animals using certain reinforcement techniques.

4. 1940-1945

4.1. Robert Gagne earns Ph.D. in psychology from Brown University (1940)

4.2. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)

4.2.1. Background Grew up in Brooklyn, oldest of 7 children Parents were first generation Russian Jewish immigrants (often discriminated against) The horrors of WWII inspired a vision of peace in him, leading to his studies of self-actualizing people. Influenced by Freud, but often disagreed with him "It is as if Freud supplied us the sick half of psychology and we must now fill it out with the healthy half"

4.2.2. Theory Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Published A Theory of Human Motivation in 1943 Wanted to understand what motivates people Said that people are motivated to satisfy certain needs in a certain order He thought that 'spectator' knowledge (aka scientifically observed or academic) was inferior to experiential knowledge Encourages a holistic approach to learning, examines all of the qualities of an individual and how they impact his or her learning Encourages fostering an emotional and physically safe learning environment so students can meet their needs on the way to self-actualization

4.3. Jerome Bruner

4.3.1. Received Ph.D from Harvard 1941

4.3.2. Instrumental in the development of Head Start Program

4.3.3. Received "Distinguished Scientific Award of the American Psychological Association"

4.3.4. Key Constructivist Theory Learning is an active, social process in which students/lerners construct new ideas or concepts based on current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. Bruner equates Language to cultural development, in his book ‘Actual Minds, Possible Worlds pg 145,he states that language is important for the increased ability to deal with abstract concepts. When a child takes the first step into language Bruner says, “..this child has acquired not only a way of saying something but a powerful instrument for combining experiences, an instrument that can now be used as a tool for organizing thoughts about things..”. Instructional Theory Bruner (1966) states that a theory of instruction should address four major aspects: (1) predisposition towards learning, (2) the ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner, (3) the most effective sequences in which to present material, and (4) the nature and pacing of rewards and punishments. Good methods for structuring knowledge should result in simplifying, generating new propositions, and increasing the manipulation of information. Principles

4.3.5. Bruners Interactions with Other Theorist Piaget Opposed for Notion of Readiness Bruner and Piaget had some Similarities Vygotsky Freud,

4.3.6. LINKS

5. 1960-1970

5.1. Bandura

5.1.1. Behaviorism the learner will imitate his models Bandura realized that behavior is molded by more factors than this, so he created the social learning theory

5.1.2. Social Learning Theory One learns by observing others Personality is affected by: 1. behavior 2. environment 3. psychological processes To learn from modeling, one needs 1. attention (no distractions) 2. retention (store information) 3. reproduction (practice) 4. motivation (rewards) internal (self-reflection) and external (models) factors affect behaviors learning happens in response to positive and negative reinforcements (praise and punishments)

5.2. Paulo Freire

5.2.1. Background (1921-1997) Born in Recife, Brazil Enrolled in law school at the University of Recife in 1943 He also studied philosophy, more specifically phenomenology, and the psychology of language. Although admitted to the legal bar, he never practiced law. He instead worked as a teacher in secondary schools teaching Portuguese.

5.2.2. Theory Paulo Freire published his famous book, "The Pedagogy of the Oppressed" in 1968 Freire believed that education involved not only reading the word, but also reading the world Education is a dialogic exchange between students & teachers where both learn, both question, both reflect and both participate in meaning-making. Freire's work has its roots in the constructivist theory of learning, and specifically the work of Jean Piaget and John Dewey.

6. 1970-1980

6.1. Lee Cronbach

6.1.1. Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs)

6.1.2. Partnered with Richard Snow in research

7. 1980-1990

8. 1990-2000

8.1. J.S. Brown: born 1940

8.1.1. Background Former Director of the Xerox PARC Research Center and Chief Scientist of Xerox Corporation Avid motorcyclist Influenced by Etienne Wenger and CoP implications for Learning and knowledge AKA: "Chief of Confusion"

8.1.2. All Learning is Social CoP's and technology may be good delivery methods for learning “We participate therefore we are” – Understanding is socially constructed whether in person or virtually "We learn in and through our interactions with others and the world" -JSB Collaboration use of technology in 21st century Tacit “Learning to be” vs. explicit- “Learning about” (Michael Polanyi) New media allows expansion outside/beyond local CoPs Blended Epistemology use of tinkering is key Knowing – Making – Playing triangle

8.2. Frank Smith (1928 - Still Alive)

8.2.1. Background Psycholinguist - essential contributor to the research on the nature of the reading process and how we learn to read

8.2.2. Theories Classic View of Learning v. Official Theory of Learning Classic View is deeply rooted, universal - that we learn from the people around us with whom we identify Official Theory is coercive and discriminatory - that learning is work and requires determined effort Learning is baed on identity - we learn from people that we identify. The "clubs" we join are essential in crafting our identify and what we will learn Referenced Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development in defining what we can learn and how we learn socially

9. 2001-Present

9.1. M. Scardamalia: born 1944

9.1.1. Background

9.1.2. Theory Knowledge Building Knowledge Forum (earlier version called CSILE) www.ikit.org/kbi/knowledge-building Knowledge Building 12 Principles from falls under Constructivism but is different from other models under this heading. Focus on theory building Building Cultural Capacity for Innovation

10. 1945-1950

10.1. Gagne becomes Director of the U.S. Air Force Perceptual and Motor Skill Laboratory (1949). Here he builds his theory.

10.1.1. Theory (Gagne's Assumption)

10.1.2. Five Categories of Learning: 1. Verbal Information 2. Intellectual Skills 3. Cognitive Strategies 4. Motor Skills 5. Attitudes

10.1.3. The Nine Events of Instruction: (apply to each of the 5 categories of learning) 1. Gaining attention - pique the learners interest 2. Informing learners of objectives - discuss what will be taught 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning - ask questions to call upon what they already know 4. Presenting the stimulus - teach the lesson 5. Providing learning guidance - allow teacher facilitated student practice 6. Eliciting performance - have learner complete a task on what was taught 7. Providing feedback - let learner know how they did on the task 8. Assessing performance - evaluate learner on their knowledge of what was taught 9. Enhancing retention and transfer - provide activity to help learners remember what was taught The Hierarchy of Conditions of Learning: (organized according to complexity and must be mastered in order) 1. Signal learning: the learner makes a general response to a signal 2. Stimulus-response learning: the learner makes a precise response to a signal 3. Chaining: the connection of a set of individual stimulus & responses in a sequence. 4. Verbal association: the learner makes associations using verbal connections 5. Discrimination learning: the learner makes different responses to different stimuli that are somewhat alike 6. Concept learning: the learner develops the ability to make a generalized response based on a class of stimuli 7. Rule learning: a rule is a chain of concepts linked to a demonstrated behavior 8. Problem solving: the learner discovers a combination of previously learned rules and applies them to solve a situation

11. 1900-1910

12. 1950-1960

12.1. Carl Rogers Theory (active 1931-1987)

12.1.1. Background (lived 1902-1987) Moved to a farm when he was 12, resulting in a strict upbringing, tedious chores, and subsequent life of isolation, independence, and self-discipline Studied agriculture in undergrad, changed degree to study Theology. Questioned religious belief throughout college Left the theological world to study Psychology Believed in student-centered learning

12.1.2. Theories (1951-1961) Student-Centered Learning (1951) Based on five hypotheses: 1. “A person cannot teach another person directly; a person can only facilitate another's learning” 2. “A person learns significantly only those things that are perceived as being involved in the maintenance of or enhancement of the structure of self” 3. “Experience which, if assimilated, would involve a change in the organization of self, tends to be resisted through denial or distortion of symbolism” 4. “The structure and organization of self appears to become more rigid under threats and to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat” 5. “The educational situation which most effectively promotes significant learning is one in which (a) threat to the self of the learner is reduced to a minimum and (b) differentiated perception of the field is facilitated” (Rogers, 1951) Nineteen Propositions (1951) Rogers believed in "unconditional positive regard." Basically, he believed that we should give people a chance to prove themselves before assigning negative assumptions to them. 1. All individuals (organisms) exist in a continually changing world of experience (phenomenal field) of which they are the center. 2. The organism reacts to the field as it is experienced and perceived. This perceptual field is "reality" for the individual. 3. The organism reacts as an organized whole to this phenomenal field. 4. A portion of the total perceptual field gradually becomes differentiated as the self. 5. As a result of interaction with the environment, and particularly as a result of evaluational interaction with others, the structure of the self is formed - an organized, fluid but consistent conceptual pattern of perceptions of characteristics and relationships of the "I" or the "me", together with values attached to these concepts. 6. The organism has one basic tendency and striving - to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism. 7. The best vantage point for understanding behavior is from the internal frame of reference of the individual. 8. Behavior is basically the goal-directed attempt of the organism to satisfy its needs as experienced, in the field as perceived. 9. Emotion accompanies, and in general facilitates, such goal directed behavior, the kind of emotion being related to the perceived significance of the behavior for the maintenance and enhancement of the organism. 10. The values attached to experiences, and the values that are a part of the self-structure, in some instances, are values experienced directly by the organism, and in some instances are values introjected or taken over from others, but perceived in distorted fashion, as if they had been experienced directly. 11. As experiences occur in the life of the individual, they are either, a) symbolized, perceived and organized into some relation to the self, b) ignored because there is no perceived relationship to the self structure, c) denied symbolization or given distorted symbolization because the experience is inconsistent with the structure of the self. 12. Most of the ways of behaving that are adopted by the organism are those that are consistent with the concept of self. 13. In some instances, behavior may be brought about by organic experiences and needs which have not been symbolized. Such behavior may be inconsistent with the structure of the self but in such instances the behavior is not "owned" by the individual. 14. Psychological adjustment exists when the concept of the self is such that all the sensory and visceral experiences of the organism are, or may be, assimilated on a symbolic level into a consistent relationship with the concept of self. 15. Psychological maladjustment exists when the organism denies awareness of significant sensory and visceral experiences, which consequently are not symbolized and organized into the gestalt of the self structure. When this situation exists, there is a basic or potential psychological tension. 16. Any experience which is inconsistent with the organization of the structure of the self may be perceived as a threat, and the more of these perceptions there are, the more rigidly the self structure is organized to maintain itself. 17. Under certain conditions, involving primarily complete absence of threat to the self structure, experiences which are inconsistent with it may be perceived and examined, and the structure of self revised to assimilate and include such experiences. 18. When the individual perceives and accepts into one consistent and integrated system all his sensory and visceral experiences, then he is necessarily more understanding of others and is more accepting of others as separate individuals. 19. As the individual perceives and accepts into his self structure more of his organic experiences, he finds that he is replacing his present value system - based extensively on introjections which have been distortedly symbolized - with a continuing organismic valuing process. Rogers's Fully Functional Person (1961) 1. A growing openness to experience: Slowly releasing fear of the unknown 2. An increasingly existential lifestyle: Living in the moment and embracing spontaneity 3. Increasing organismic trust: Trusting one's self to make the right decision; and make decisions based on the moment 4. Freedom of choice: Believing in free will, and that they must live with the consequences of their decisions 5. Creativity: Being a more creative thinker. Someone that does not try to recreate the wheel, but does solve problems creatively 6. Reliability and constructiveness: Owning one's different feelings, reactions, and needs, and then building on them or using them to move forward in life; or, using them to learn 7. A rich full life: Experiencing, and recognizing, all of the facets of life, and creating them as equally necessary experiences (happiness and sadness, anger and bliss, hope and regret, etc.)

12.2. Lee Cronbach

12.2.1. Alpha Coefficient (1951)

12.2.2. Generalizability Theory (1950-1960)

12.2.3. Theory - (1957) - "We require a measure of aptitude that remains to be discovered. Ultimately we should design treatments, not to fit the average person, but to fit groups of students with particular aptitude patterns. Conversely, we should seek out the aptitudes which correspond to (interact with) modifiable aspects of the treatment."

13. 1920-1930

13.1. Jean Piaget (1896-1980)

13.1.1. Background a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. He was influenced by Immanuel Kant, Henri Bergson,Pierre Janet, and James Mark. Died at 74 Theory He proposed that children's thinking does not develop entirely smoothly: instead, there are certain points at which it "takes off" and moves into completely new areas and capabilities. He saw these transitions as taking place at about 18 months, 7 years and 11 or 12 years. This has been taken to mean that before these ages children are not capable (no matter how bright) of understanding things in certain ways.