Student Assessments

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Student Assessments by Mind Map: Student Assessments

1. Diagnostic

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. A diagnostic exam is a type of formative examination. The purpose of the diagnostic exam is to identify when students in the classroom are not at the level they need to be at. They can also determine that students have met the level they should be meeting.

1.2. 3rd Grade Example

1.2.1. "Show what you know", labeling, matching, fill-in-the-blank.

1.3. Pros and Cons

1.3.1. Pro- Can often provide a clear understanding of where a class is at overall, as well as a diagnosis for where each individual student is at in regard to learning.

1.3.2. Con- Sometimes the benchmarks that are observed and derived from diagnostic exams are inaccurate and students can suffer academically overall because of this.

1.4. Sources

1.4.1. Diagnostic Tests for Elementary Schools. (2011, February 20). Retrieved December 5, 2014, from

2. Formative

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. Formal and informal testing procedures that teachers can apply during their lessons or in the tasks following. This type of assessment can be used to directly modify teaching instruction and provide immediate feedback.

2.2. 3rd Grade Example

2.2.1. Such a variety of choices to choose from! Some examples of formative assessments include: Quick writes, thumbs-up vs thumbs down, clap for understanding, teach a partner, and so many more!

2.3. Pros and Cons

2.3.1. Pro- Authentic testing provides a way for the teacher to see who understands the materials while they are teaching. It is a direct response to what is being taught, and the teacher can amend his/her lesson plan from the point of the testing results.

2.3.2. Con- These types of Assessments must be given clearly and accurately in order to work to their best potential. There is room for error in the distribution of authentic testing methods.

2.4. Sources

2.4.1. Dodge, J. (n.d.). What Are Formative Assessments and Why Should We Use Them? | Retrieved December 5, 2014, from

3. Summative

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. A summative assessment is a more formal method of testing student knowledge about a previously learned concept or unit of study. This type of evaluation is also commonly given at the end of the quarter, during the middle of the year and as a final, cumulative exam. Summative assessments give the instructor an idea of how much content the students have retained and may use the results to determine effective learning and teaching techniques for the class.

3.2. 3rd Grade Example

3.2.1. Multiple choice tests, end-of-unit tests, standardized state testing.

3.3. Pros and Cons

3.3.1. Pros- They can be implemented and taken quickly. They are easy to grade and often contain only one correct answer. They are very valuable for benchmarking and student evaluation comparisons.

3.3.2. These types of test may limit what can be measured. It also limits the learning and clarification processes of goals and objectives.

3.4. Sources

3.4.1. What Is a Summative Assessment? (2011, June 28). Retrieved December 4, 2014, from

4. Performance Based

4.1. Description

4.1.1. Performance Based Testing is a way of testing students by having them demonstrate their knowledge through individual performance of each subject.

4.2. 3rd Grade Examples

4.2.1. Performance-based testing methods utilize a variety of techniques depending on the subject being examined. For example, oral discussions about a story or character. Open-ended projects and questions are another example.

4.3. Pros & Cons

4.3.1. Pro- The student can be more responsible for their own learning and the demonstration of their own learning.

4.3.2. Con- It is difficult for teachers to test a large amount of students in this way, because of time restrictions.

4.4. Sources

4.4.1. Performance Based Assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved December 4, 2014, from

5. High-Stakes

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. A High-Stakes student assessment is an assessment with a serious consequence or outcomes for the test-taker.

5.2. 3rd Grade Example

5.2.1. An example of a third-grade test might be a proficiency exam in which a student would not be allowed to move up to the next grade level without passing the test. Florida has a test like this called the FCAT.

5.3. Pros and Cons

5.3.1. Pro- High personal accountability for students. Ensures that each student is at the level they are required to be at. Forces studying and hard work.

5.3.2. Con- A lot of testing pressure. Some people do not test well, and their work is not reflected best through an examination of this type. They will be left behind and unable to move forward because they cannot pass the test.

5.4. Sources

5.4.1. High Stakes Testing. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2014, from

6. Portfolio

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. Portfolio assessment is an evaluation tool used to document student learning through a series of student-developed artifacts. Considered a form of authentic assessment, it offers an alternative or an addition to traditional methods of grading and high stakes exams.

6.1.2. The portfolio itself is a container of some sort, for example, a folder, crate, file, or virtual space for online portfolios. The selected contents should demonstrate student accomplishments over time.

6.2. 3rd Grade Example

6.2.1. Writing samples that may vary in genre, content, and style, laboratory reports, journals, taped performances, recordings, art, research papers, projects, photos, interviews, conferences, tests, quizzes, observations, and reflections.

6.3. Pros and Cons

6.3.1. Pro-This type of assessment goes beyond the typical letter grades and give the teacher a way to see a child's progress over time! They provide an authentic way to demonstrate a child's skills and accomplishments.

6.3.2. Con- Takes a long time to accumulate information for the portfolio. Time consuming to view results as well. Can take up a lot of space, depending on the type of physical portfolio used.

6.4. Sources

6.4.1. Portfolio Assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2014, from

7. Authentic

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. Direct measurement of skills that relate to long-term educational outcomes such as success in the workplace; Tasks that require extensive engagement and complex performance; and an analysis of the processes used to produce the response.

7.2. 3rd Grade Example

7.2.1. Do science experiments, conduct social-science research, write stories and reports, read and interpret literature, solve math problems that have real-world, applications

7.3. Pros and Cons

7.3.1. Pro- Students will learn how to apply skills to real-like situation and real-world projects. This will be beneficial for them in the future!

7.3.2. Con- This type of test can be difficult to evaluate. fairly and accurately.

7.4. Sources

7.4.1. "Authentic Assessment." N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2014. From

8. Self Assessment

8.1. Definition

8.1.1. A student conducts an evaluation of their own personal work.

8.2. 3rd Grade Example

8.2.1. A student uses a checklist to conduct an evaluation on a project.

8.3. Pros and Cons

8.3.1. Pros- "Students can become better language learners when they engage in deliberate thought about what they are learning and how they are learning it. In this kind of reflection, students step back from the learning process to think about their language learning strategies and their progress as language learners. Such self assessment encourages students to become independent learners and can increase their motivation."

8.3.2. Con- A self assessment is subjective and often times a student will hold no accountability for their assessment.

8.4. Sources

8.4.1. Peer and Self-Assessment. (2003, January 1). Retrieved December 4, 2014, from

9. Peer Assessment

9.1. Definition

9.1.1. Peer Assessment is when a student assesses and evaluates one or more of their classmates for the purpose of better understanding and learning.

9.2. 3rd Grade Example

9.2.1. Student will write a paragraph. When finished, another student will read the paragraph and mark for errors.

9.2.2. Students switch tests and grade their peers paper.

9.3. Pros & Cons

9.3.1. Pro- Students often learn well from a peer and take what they say into consideration. Students who complete peer assessments successfully and seriously can learn from the other peer's mistakes as well.

9.3.2. Con- Not all students take peer assessments seriously, and it provides an opportunity for them to stray from the content. If the assessment is not done correctly, neither student will benefit.

9.4. Sources

9.4.1. Peer and Self-Assessment. (2003, January 1). Retrieved December 4, 2014, from