Learning Design & Technology

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Learning Design & Technology by Mind Map: Learning Design & Technology

1. Design Models

1.1. ADDIE Model (Forest, 2014)

1.1.1. Definition

1.1.1.1. 1. is Generic Process traditionally used by instructional developers.

1.1.1.2. 2. is the Core of Instructional Design

1.1.1.3. 3. is the foundation of Instructional System Design (ISO)

1.1.2. Five Phases

1.1.2.1. I. Analysis

1.1.2.1.1. Identify instructional problems, the instructional goals and objectives, learning environment, learner's existing knowledge and skills.

1.1.2.2. II. Design

1.1.2.2.1. Deal with Learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercise, content subject matter, lesson plan and media selection in a systematic and specific way.

1.1.2.3. III. Development

1.1.2.3.1. Create and assemble the content assets that were blueprinted in the design phase. If e-learning is involved, programmers work to develop and/or integrate technologies.

1.1.2.4. IV. Implementation

1.1.2.4.1. Develop a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners. Facilitators' training covers the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures.

1.1.2.5. V. Evaluation

1.1.2.5.1. Formative Evaluation

1.1.2.5.2. Summative Evaluation

1.2. Dick & Carey Model (Dick & Carey, 1990)

1.2.1. Definition

1.2.1.1. 1. is a systems view of instruction as opposed to viewing instruction as a sum of isolated parts.

1.2.1.2. 2. addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction.

1.2.2. 10 Components

1.2.2.1. Identify Instructional Goal(s)

1.2.2.1.1. goal statement describes a skill, knowledge or attitude (SKA) that a learner will be expected to acquire.

1.2.2.2. Conduct Instructional Analysis

1.2.2.2.1. Identify what a learner must recall and identify what learner must be able to do to perform particular task.

1.2.2.2.2. Identify what a learner must recall and identify what learner must be able to do to perform particular task.

1.2.2.3. Analyze Learners and Contexts

1.2.2.3.1. Identify general characteristics of the target audience including prior skills, prior experience, and basic demographics; identify characteristics directly related to the skill to be taught; and perform analysis of the performance and learning settings.

1.2.2.4. Write Performance Objectives

1.2.2.4.1. Objectives consists of a description of the behavior, the condition and criteria. The component of an objective that describes the criteria that will be used to judge the learner's performance.

1.2.2.5. Develop Assessment Instruments

1.2.2.5.1. Purpose of entry behavior testing, purpose of pretesting, purpose of posttesting, purpose of practice items/practice problems Develop Instructional Strategy: Pre-instructional activities, content presentation, Learner participation, assessment.

1.2.2.6. Develop and Select Instructional Materials

1.2.2.7. Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction

1.2.2.7.1. Designer try to identify areas of the instructional materials that are in need of improvement.

1.2.2.8. Revise Instruction

1.2.2.8.1. To identify poor test items and to identify poor instruction.

1.2.2.9. Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation

1.3. Kemp's Model (Kemp, Morrison, & Ross, 1994)

1.3.1. Definition

1.3.1.1. 1. is comprised of nine different components of an instructional design.

1.3.1.2. 2. Adopt a continuous implementation/evaluation model.

1.3.2. 9 Components

1.3.2.1. Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program.

1.3.2.2. Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning.

1.3.2.3. Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes.

1.3.2.4. State instructional objectives for the learner.

1.3.2.5. Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning.

1.3.2.6. Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives.

1.3.2.7. Plan the instructional message and delivery.

1.3.2.8. Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.

1.3.2.9. Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.

1.4. Summary of Three Design Models

1.4.1. Commons

1.4.1.1. Contains Five Phases except Dick & Carey's model (no Implementation stage)

1.4.1.1.1. Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation Phases

1.4.1.2. Systemic

1.4.1.2.1. There is interactions among the key components

1.4.1.3. Systematic

1.4.1.3.1. There is a general process from one phase to the next.

1.4.2. Differences

1.4.2.1. ADDIE

1.4.2.1.1. Considers facilitators' training

1.4.2.1.2. Integration of Technologies is mentioned in the development stage

1.4.2.2. Dick & Carey's model

1.4.2.2.1. No implementation phase

2. Five Phases of Instructional Design (Models & Principles)

2.1. I. Analysis (Problem & Training Needs)

2.1.1. Need Assessment

2.1.1.1. Definition

2.1.1.1.1. identify and clarify the performance problem

2.1.1.2. Purpose

2.1.1.2.1. Determine Performance Gap = Optimal - Actual

2.1.1.2.2. Seek Feelings

2.1.1.2.3. Seek Cause(s)

2.1.1.2.4. Seek solutions

2.1.1.3. Process

2.1.1.3.1. Identify relevant stakeholders

2.1.1.3.2. Choose appropriate tools to use

2.1.2. Performance Problem Analysis

2.1.2.1. Cause analysis

2.1.2.1.1. Wile’s model (Wile, 2007)

2.1.2.2. Possible Intervention Analysis

2.1.2.2.1. Mager & Pipe's Flowchart (Mager & Pipe, 1997)

2.1.2.2.2. Blanchard & Thacker process model (Blanchard & Thacker, 2010)

2.1.2.2.3. Reflection

2.1.3. Task Analysis

2.1.3.1. Definition

2.1.3.1.1. Analysis of how a task or work is actually performed

2.1.3.2. Purposes

2.1.3.2.1. Establishes minimum expectations or standards

2.1.3.2.2. Clarifies conditions needed for competent performance

2.1.3.3. Process

2.1.3.3.1. Clarify Job conditions

2.1.3.3.2. Establish job standards

2.1.3.3.3. Choose appropriate methods to conduct

2.1.3.4. Type

2.1.3.4.1. Hierarchical Task Analysis

2.1.4. Learner Analysis

2.1.4.1. Learners' characteristics

2.1.4.1.1. Assumptions

2.1.4.1.2. Age related similarity & diversity

2.1.4.1.3. Gender related similarity & Diversity

2.1.4.1.4. Psychological stage

2.1.4.1.5. Cognitive stage

2.1.4.1.6. Mental stage

2.1.4.1.7. Physiological stage

2.2. II. Design (Blueprint Content Assets)

2.2.1. Learning Objectives (LO) Determination

2.2.1.1. Definition of LO

2.2.1.1.1. Brief, clear statements that describe the desired learning outcomes of instruction

2.2.1.1.2. Comparison

2.2.1.2. Purpose of LO

2.2.1.2.1. to inform the learner how they will demonstrate their learning

2.2.1.2.2. to communicate expectations to learners

2.2.1.2.3. to provide specifications for instructional products

2.2.1.2.4. for clear communication of what will be learned

2.2.1.3. Approaches

2.2.1.3.1. ABCD model to write (Smaldino, Lowther & Russell, 2007)

2.2.2. Principles for Designing Instructions

2.2.2.1. Nine Events Principles (Gagné , 1985)

2.2.2.1.1. Learning Process of each Event

2.2.2.1.2. Comments

2.2.2.2. Merrill's First Principle (Merrill, 2002)

2.2.2.2.1. Five First Principles of effective instruction (Figure shown)

2.2.2.3. ARCS model (Keller, 1987)

2.2.2.3.1. Motivation is the Core

2.2.2.3.2. Four Components (as shown in figure)

2.2.2.4. 7 Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education (Chickering & Gamson, 1987)

2.2.2.4.1. 7 Principles

2.2.2.4.2. 6 powerful forces in education (when 7 principles work together)

2.2.2.4.3. Favorable environmental conditions for good practice

2.3. III. Development (Create & Assembly content assets)

2.3.1. Task

2.3.1.1. created in the prior two phases, Analysis and Design, into a complete learning environment

2.3.2. Result

2.3.2.1. Learning platform

2.3.2.1.1. the media and its content, such as software, lesson outlines, performance aids, and video, that contains the instructional content and activities that will aid the learners in their quest for better performance

2.3.3. Development Process: Backwards Planning Model (Watson, 1981)

2.3.3.1. 1. List Learner Activities

2.3.3.2. 2. Choose Delivery System

2.3.3.2.1. Selection of Instructional Media: Multimedia Learning

2.3.3.3. 3. Review Existing Material

2.3.3.4. 4. Develop Instruction

2.3.3.5. 5. Synthesize

2.3.3.6. 6. Validate Instruction

2.3.3.6.1. Prototyping

2.3.3.6.2. Testing & Evaluation

2.3.3.6.3. Revision

2.4. IV. Implementation

2.4.1. Process (ADDIE model)

2.4.1.1. Implement the instructional management Plan

2.4.1.2. Conduct the instruction

2.5. V. Evaluation

2.5.1. Four levels of training outcomes evaluation (Kirkpatrick, 1998)

2.5.1.1. 1. Reaction

2.5.1.1.1. Definition

2.5.1.1.2. Commonly used Method

2.5.1.2. 2. Learning

2.5.1.2.1. Definition

2.5.1.2.2. Commonly used Method

2.5.1.2.3. Challenges

2.5.1.3. 3. Behaviour

2.5.1.3.1. Definition

2.5.1.3.2. Commonly used Method

2.5.1.4. 4. Results

2.5.1.4.1. Definition

2.5.1.4.2. Commonly used Method

3. Technologies in Learning

3.1. Technology Supported Pedagogical Approaches

3.1.1. e-Learning

3.1.1.1. Definition

3.1.1.1.1. The delivery of a learning, training or education program by electronic means. (Derek Stockley 2003)

3.1.1.1.2. Can be synchronous or asynchronous

3.1.1.2. Technology involved

3.1.1.2.1. A greater variety of equipment

3.1.1.3. 10 Principles of Successful E-Learning (Anderson, 2005)

3.1.1.3.1. 1. Match to the curriculum

3.1.1.3.2. 2. Inclusion

3.1.1.3.3. 3. Learner engagement

3.1.1.3.4. 4. Innovative Approaches

3.1.1.3.5. 5. Effective Learning

3.1.1.3.6. 6. Formative Assessment

3.1.1.3.7. 7. Summative Assessment

3.1.1.3.8. 8. Coherence, Consistency & Transparency

3.1.1.3.9. 9. Ease of use

3.1.1.3.10. 10. Cost-effectiveness

3.1.2. Blended learning

3.1.2.1. Example: Flipped Classroom

3.1.2.1.1. lecture at night at home & homework in school hours at school

3.1.2.1.2. Advantages

3.1.2.2. Definition

3.1.2.2.1. mixes different platforms of learning, typically virtual and physical to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of a learning experience

3.1.2.2.2. combine: face to face & online learning

3.1.3. Flexible learning

3.1.3.1. encourages greater student responsibility to learning as well as deep approaches to learning

3.1.3.2. learning task and outcome is flexible

3.2. Web 2.0 Technologies in Learning Design

3.2.1. Definition of Web 2.0 (Hew & Cheung, 2013)

3.2.1.1. allows two-way communication between the site and users

3.2.1.2. a concept which allows individuals to collaborate with one another and contribute to the authorship of content, customize web sites for their use, and instantaneously publish their thoughts

3.2.2. Framework classifying Web 2.0 tools (Hew & Cheung, 2013)

3.2.2.1. main functionality

3.2.2.2. primary degree of synchronicity they enable

3.2.2.2.1. asynchronous

3.2.2.2.2. synchronous

3.2.3. Common types of Web 2.0 tools in learning (Hew & Cheung, 2013)

3.2.3.1. Weblog

3.2.3.1.1. Functionality

3.2.3.1.2. Synchronicity

3.2.3.1.3. Examples

3.2.3.2. Wiki

3.2.3.2.1. Functionality

3.2.3.2.2. Synchronicity

3.2.3.2.3. Examples

3.2.3.3. Audio discussion board

3.2.3.3.1. Functionality

3.2.3.3.2. Synchronicity

3.2.3.3.3. Examples

3.2.3.4. Social network

3.2.3.4.1. Functionality

3.2.3.4.2. Synchronicity

3.2.3.4.3. Examples

3.2.3.5. Video sharing

3.2.3.5.1. Functionality

3.2.3.5.2. Synchronicity

3.2.3.5.3. Examples

3.2.3.6. Podcast

3.2.3.6.1. Functionality

3.2.3.6.2. Synchronicity

3.2.3.6.3. Examples

3.2.3.7. Social bookmarking

3.2.3.7.1. Functionality

3.2.3.7.2. Synchronicity

3.2.3.7.3. Examples

3.2.3.8. Game virtual worlds, social virtual worlds

3.2.3.8.1. Synchronicity

3.2.3.8.2. Functionality

3.2.3.8.3. Examples

3.2.4. Research (Hew & Cheung, 2013)

3.2.4.1. Finding

3.2.4.1.1. The use of Web 2.0 technologies appears to have a general positive impact on student learning.

3.2.4.1.2. The positive effects are not necessarily attributed to the technologies per se but to how the technologies are used, and how one conceptualizes learning.

3.2.4.1.3. A dialogic, constructionist or co-constructive pedagogy supported by activities such as Socratic questioning appeared to increase student achievement in blog-, wiki-, and 3-D immersive virtual world environment.

3.2.4.1.4. A transmissive pedagoy supported by review activities appeared to enhance students learning using podcast

3.2.4.2. Indication

3.2.4.2.1. Pedagogy is always the first than integrating technology

3.2.4.2.2. Effective integration of Web 2.0 tool requires appropriate learning activity design and application of pedagogy

4. References

5. Define Learning

5.1. Theoretical Models of Learning

5.1.1. Behaviorism

5.1.1.1. Core Assumption

5.1.1.1.1. Learning is a relatively permanent change in observable behavior.

5.1.1.2. Basic concepts

5.1.1.2.1. Classic conditionaing

5.1.1.2.2. Operant Conditioning

5.1.1.3. Reflection

5.1.1.3.1. Implications to Learning Design

5.1.1.3.2. Issues & Concerns

5.1.1.3.3. Advantages of Behaviorism (Flores, 2013)

5.1.2. Cognitivism

5.1.2.1. Core Assumption

5.1.2.1.1. The memory system is an active organized processor of information

5.1.2.1.2. Prior knowledge plays an important role in learning

5.1.2.2. Key concept

5.1.2.2.1. Cognitive Information Processing Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)

5.1.2.3. Reflection

5.1.2.3.1. Implication for Learning

5.1.2.3.2. Limitations

5.1.3. Constructivism

5.1.3.1. Core Views

5.1.3.1.1. Humans learn by constructing their own representations/models of experiences

5.1.3.1.2. Construction closely linked to social-cultural contexts

5.1.3.1.3. Construction closely linked to social-cultural contexts

5.1.3.1.4. Meaning is imposed by people and cultures

5.1.3.2. Types

5.1.3.2.1. Individual constructivism

5.1.3.2.2. Social constructivism

5.1.3.3. Reflection

5.1.3.3.1. Implication for learning

5.1.3.3.2. Limitation

5.1.3.3.3. Advantage

5.2. Jonassen's Definition (Jonassen, 2003)

5.2.1. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior

5.2.2. Learning is information processing

5.2.3. Learning is remembering and recalling

5.2.4. Learning is thinking skills

5.2.5. Learning is activity

5.2.6. Learning is social negotiation