My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education by Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. Sociological Perspectives

1.1. Students who complete school have a greater chance of employment. A high school diploma is the starting ground for a job, but those with a college diploma are usually more appealing to potential employers.

1.2. Job Performance is a reflection of a student's experiences in school. A student's first job in life is as a student. Schools teach students to be responsible with the work that is required of them. It is also an opportunity to teach students to be proactive in every task that they do. This will carry over into the real world and make a better employee.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. 1920-1860. The Industrial Revolution brought on a whole new set of problems and possibilities. In those possibilities came a new movement in education.

2.2. Horace Mann lobbied for common schools so children would have better opportunities for a free education. He felt that schools could have a positive impact both intellectually and socially.

2.3. A huge advancement for universities came in 1862 when the Morrill Act was passed. This gave public universities opportunities for grant money from public funds.

2.4. During this time in history, the reform movement focused on education to solve not only the problem of illiteracy, but also to remedy the social issues of society.

2.5. African Americans did not have the same opportunities in education. In Roberts V. City of Boston, the court ruled that the segregation was legal. This ruling spawned the beginning of Black colleges, such as Howard University in Washington, D.C.

2.6. The functional theory of education is one in which all parts of society work together to make the world a better place. In order for students to become productive citizens, schools are partially responsible for helping them in socialization. In doing this, they will continue to advance and become an integral part of the future society.

2.7. Mary Lyon founded Mount Holyoke Seminary in 1837. This was a huge advancement for women in the world of post-secondary education. The requirements and instruction were equal for men and women, excluding the foreign language.

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Pragmatism is the philosophy of education that I find to be most appealing. This philosophy is one in which education is more than academics. It prepares students to be part of the real world.

3.2. The general notions of pragmatism are that school was a key part of making society better overall. The source of education was books as well as many hands-on activities. Progressive education's purpose is to focus on the ever changing needs of students to keep moving forward in society.

3.3. The key researchers in the pragmatic philosophy of education were George Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. John Dewer focused heavily on instrumentalism and experimentalism.

3.4. The goals of education include not only providing the tools needed for academic knowledge necessary in life, but also to provide the instruction and experience to prepare students to be productive citizens socially in society. Community is a major player in these goals. The community and schools must work together to be successful in education.

3.5. The teacher is not seen as the keeper of all knowledge in this philosophy. Instead, the teacher provides students with want to learn new information through instruction and experience. The teacher must be willing to use different methods of instruction in order to be successful.

3.6. The inquiry method or problem solving is what is used in instruction. In these methods of instruction, teachers center in on what the students want to learn Through instruction, individual study, and group activities, students are able to learn.

3.7. The curriculum of expanding environment is one in which is constantly changing. This curriculum is not set in stone, but it is flexible to meet the present needs of students. It incorporates many subjects for students to connect school to real life situations.

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. The No Child Left Behind act requires that all teachers be highly qualified.

4.2. Teachers must play many different roles in the classroom. This is one reason that teachers experience burnout.

4.3. Oftentimes, teachers only receive reward or recognition from students. Administration rarely gives credit or praise for a job well done.

4.4. The nature of learning is a mysterious thing. The role of a teacher encompasses many things other than the instruction and transmitting of that knowledge.

4.5. Teachers have a daily routine. However, a teacher has the opportunity to be creative and make each day unique.

4.6. Teachers are not viewed as professionals in society. They don't choose their clients as other professionals do.

4.7. School based management is a way in which teachers may be viewed as professionals. In this management, teachers have a voice in their own schools. They have input with the academic decisions, curriculum, and discipline issues.

4.8. Bureaucracy interferes with a teacher's ability to obtain professional autonomy difficult. With the demands from administration, it is a challenge to maintain their autonomy.

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. The developmental curriculum is in line with the progressive philosophy of education. This curriculum focuses on the child through the different stages of development. This type of curriculum centers on the strengths of the individual students. Lessons are constructed in such a way that they are easily related to real life world experiences.

5.2. The pedagogical approach that transforms the student in many different areas is the transformative tradition. Through this approach of pedagogy, teachers not only pass on knowledge to students that is academic in nature, but they also impact the areas of creativity and emotion. Teachers are not the only facilitators of knowledge in this approach. Learning is being accomplished by both students and teachers continually. Plato and Socrates were the first to explore the use of this approach. John Dewey was also a big contributor to the idea of transformative tradition.

5.3. The Modern Functionalist Theory was developed in the United States by Talcott Parsons and Robert Dreeban. This theory supports the idea that schools should prepare students for the modern world. The memorization of facts is not the only purpose of school. Students need to learn how to learn. Values of society are learned in school as well. These components together will aide in success in life in the real world upon completion of school.

5.4. Governor Robert Bentley is the governor of the state of Alabama. The House of Representative member of my district is Mack Butler. The Senate member of my district is Phil Williams.

5.5. The Alabama Board of Education is headed by Superintendent Dr. Thomas R. Bice. The state board member over district 8 is Ms. Mary Scott.

5.6. The Etowah County Board of Education is headed by Dr. Alan Cosby. The county board member over the west Etowah county district (West End Schools) is Mr. Ernie Payne.

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. The Education of All Handicapped Children Law (EHA) was passed by Congress in 1975. It was changed to the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act in 1996.

6.2. The EHA provided the right of access for those with disabilities to public education programs.

6.3. The individualization of services was a part of the EHA.

6.4. The least restrictive environment was part of this act. This allows students with disabilities to be in a classroom with their peers as much as possible.

6.5. Schools must provide services for children with disabilities and have the means to determine the needs of these children.

6.6. Regular Education Initiative (REI) was pushed in the 1980's. This called for all children with disabilities to be mainstreamed into the classrooms. There are critics who feel that these students will not get the full education benefits that they are entitled to in these situations.

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Functionalists believe that the role of the school is to provide a fair and meritocratic process for students.

7.2. Evaluations should be carried out be examining the effort of an individual and the talent that is seen through the work.

7.3. It is important to understand the causes of educational inequality in order to remove barriers that may impede educational success.

7.4. Tracking is necessary in the classroom. This is not used to hold back those students who may be struggling, but it gives opportunity for students to learn at the pace that is right for their intellectual needs.

7.5. The socialization of boys and girls is different in the classroom. This is carried over from society. Boys and girls think in different ways, and there are expectations that may be different for each. This does not limit them to their "roles", but it gives them the chance to break free from the roles.

7.6. To ensure the equality of education, steps must be taken to make sure the characteristics are in place. They include a climate of high expectations, strong leadership of the principal, accountability for teachers and students, monitoring the student learning, appropriate instructional time, and flexibility for how teachers will cover the lessons.

8. Educational Reform

8.1. No Child Left Behind was a great part of the educational reform. This act was put into place to put students on a level playing field. It was supposed to aid in the achievement gap by putting low-income students at the same level academically as others. It also has put schools, administrators, and teachers to be more accountable for their actions and the results from testing. There are a lot of critics to this piece of legislation, and the goals haven't been met. However, it did get the ball rolling for other legislative acts to aid in school reform.

8.2. Race to the Top was another attempt at educational reform. This was established by President Barack Obama and has taken up where NCLB left off. This act wants to prepare students for college and life, reward teachers for doing an excellent job, monitor the progress in schools, and improve low-performing schools. Race to the Top issues grants to schools that qualify to get them on the right track to meet goals. In doing this, some schools are issued a pardon for parts of the NCLB that they may not being conforming to.

8.3. The Broader Bolder Approach is an approach to educational reform that is generally supported by liberals. This approach looks at the whole student to find success in the classroom. This includes health, family, community, and academics. This approach goes beyond the classroom to the home and community.

8.4. School Choice is policies that allow parents to decide where their children can attend school. There are two kinds of school choice. There is intersectional choice which lets them choose between public and private. Intrasectional choice allows them to choose among the public schools in the area. Some see this as a way for people from poverty-stricken areas to have the freedom to send their children to a better school.

8.5. Charter schools are schools that are funded by the government without all of the restrictions. These schools are public schools, but they have much more flexibility in the curriculum and how it is taught. However, these schools have a rigid set of standards, and if the school doesn't perform accordingly,, it can be shut down.

8.6. America 200 was a policy that was created to move schools forward. It's purpose was to create better schools, transform America into a whole nation of students, and enabling communities where learning would be something that would happen.

9. Politics of Education

9.1. Social problems are not the same for everyone. The issues need to be addressed on a case by case basis. Government programs are sometimes like putting a bandage on a gaping wound. People may need assistance, but they have to try to be proactive and help themselves.

9.2. The curriculum is a guide for both academics and for cultural training. This is a vital part of the educational process..

9.3. Standards need be created so that teachers, students, and schools will have a guideline to follow and a way to be accountable.

9.4. Focusing on the basics of education is necessary to create a firm foundation from which students can grow intellectually and socially. Reading, writing, and math need to be a top priority.

9.5. Traditional visions of education are a way of passing along the basic values of the United States. It is important for children to understand the idea of a family, hard work, and the results that occur from that work. The classroom may be the only opportunity that some students have to learn these values that are a fundamental part of becoming a productive citizen.

9.6. Schools are responsible for providing students with the education needed to give them the best opportunities for success in the workplace and in life.

9.7. Schools are responsible for providing students with the education needed to give them the best opportunities for success in the workplace and in life. This is a place where students should learn not only academics but how to get along and work with their peers in different situations.