deBlij Chapter 11: Agricultural Geography

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deBlij Chapter 11: Agricultural Geography by Mind Map: deBlij Chapter 11: Agricultural Geography

1. Field Note

1.1. Soybeans are now being grown in South Dakota

1.1.1. Why: They are genetically modified soybeans made possible to live in more arid regions of the country

1.1.2. How: 1st: you plant the soybean 2nd: use the airplane to spray Roundup roundup: weed killer that the genetically modified soybeans are resistant to

1.2. Organic Agriculture: farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides and hormones

1.2.1. Starting to get more popular in America

1.2.2. Grown Everywhere

1.2.3. Sold mainly in the global economic core: United States Canada Japan Europe Australia

1.2.4. Agricultural fields are devoted to organic agriculture in the core, semi-periphery, and periphery core: organic farming has helped some farmers extract themselves to a degree from the control of large external corporate interests by tapping on the niche market Semi-periphery and Periphery: similar to that of other major cash crops: production is almost all for the global economic core countries when the organic agriculture bears a fair trade certification, more wealth goes to the producers

1.2.5. The continually increasing demand for organic products has led the U.S. Department of Agriculture to certify organic products in the country, giving some degree of standardization to organic agriculture.

1.3. Most Acres used for organic agriculture in the U.S. (2007) are in: (Map pg. 367)

1.3.1. California

1.3.2. Midwest

1.3.3. Rustbelt

1.3.4. Upper New England

1.3.5. Not in: 4-corners region + Nevada and the South

2. What Is Agriculture, And Where Did Agriculture Begin?

2.1. agriculture: raising crops and livestock to produce food and fiber

2.2. Economic Sectors:

2.2.1. primary economic activity: agriculture, ranching, fishing, mining, forestry Agriculture fits in this sector

2.2.2. secondary economic activity: manufacturing

2.2.3. tertiary economic activity: service provision - transportation, banking, retail, education, office jobs

2.2.4. quaternary economic activity: a subcategory of the tertiary economic sector - collecting, processing and manipulating information and capital - finance, administration, insurance, legal services

2.2.5. quinary economic activity: a subcategory of the tertiary economic sector - scientific research and high level management

2.3. By analyzing the percentage of the population employed in each sector, we can gain insight into how the production of goods is organized, as well as the employment structures of different societies.

2.4. The story of any product (wheat or rice) can be better illuminated by focusing o how the good is produced (based off of World-systems theory)

2.4.1. the kinds of technology

2.4.2. research

2.4.3. wages

2.4.4. education that goes into its production

2.5. Examining the proportion of the people employed in the given economic statues dives us a basic idea of how the good is produced

2.5.1. In Guatemala, 50% of the population is on an agricultural labor force, but the agricultural sector only accounts for 13.5% of GDP Tertiary sector: 35% of the labor force and 62% of the GDP

2.5.2. In Canada, the agricultural sector accounts for 2.3% of GDP and only 2% of the labor voce is employed in agriculture. Tertiary sector: 75% of labor force and over 71% of GDP

2.5.3. This tells us the lack of mechanization and the bigger amount in Canada making amount of labor lessen greatly in the global economic core Mechanization has greatly altered the size and output of farms, as well as how many people are invested in agriculture.

2.6. 4 major issues that the National Research Council of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences identified as affecting food security worldwide

2.6.1. varying abilities to balance production and consumption across regions and countries

2.6.2. accelerating conversions of agricultural land to urban areas

2.6.3. increasingly energy-intensive food production methods in a world of shrinking fossil fuel resources

2.6.4. expanding use of food crops for biofuel production

2.7. Hunting, Gathering, and Fishing

2.7.1. A hunter: someone who has to hunt animals for food Mainly near the Pacific Salmon fishing Great Plains Basin herds North (Alaska-Russia) Caribou herds

2.7.2. A gatherer: collect (grain, plants, fruits or other crops) for food

2.7.3. Size of the clans varied according to climate and resource availability

2.8. Terrain and Tools

2.8.1. Hunter-gathers worked on perfecting tools, controlling, fires, and adapting environments to their needs. Their first tools were: simple clubs tree limbs that were thin at one end and thick and heavy at the other making hunting more effective. controlling fires People think that their fires were started accidentally but then they tried to control the fire, and keep it alive once it was lit. They later learned tricks to starting the fire and keeping it alive longer, and easier to manage. Used to cook raw meat and drive animals into traps(prey) or over cliffs (dangerous predators) They also caught shellfish by cutting small patches of standing water off from the open sea, and invented tools to catch fish, including harpoons, hooks Hunter-gathers took advantage of the cyclical movements of animals and to avoid running out to the supply of edible plants in one area After the summer, salmon runs, people hunted deer during the fall and spring taking advantage of the seasonal movements to trap deer where they crossed rivers or in narrow valleys During the winter, people lived off dry meat and other storable foods.

2.9. The First Agricultural Revolution

2.9.1. Geographer Carl Sauer believed the experiments necessary to establish agriculture and settle in one place would occur in lands of plenty. Only certain civilizations were able to grow enough food to capture and breed animals for domestication Studied the 1st Agricultural Revolution focusing on the location of the agriculture hearths what kinds of agricultural innovations took place in those hearths

2.9.2. plant domestication: genetic modification of a plant so that its reproduction requires human intervention Carl Sauer: Believed its hearth started in S & SE Asia more than 14,000 years ago on tropical plants

2.9.3. root crops: crops that are reproduced by using roots or cuttings - for example planting the "eye" of the potato A similar but later process started in NE South America

2.9.4. seed crops: crop that is reproduced by cultivating (prepare and land for crops or gardening) the seeds Developed in multiple areas Some scholars believe the Nile River Valley in North Africa was the first Most believe SW Asia (Fertile Crescent - around the 2 major rivers of Iraq, Tigris and Euphrates - Mesopotamia) was the first

2.9.5. The Cultivation of seed crops marked the beginning of what has been called the First Agricultural Revolution First Agricultural Revolution began 10,000 years ago - plant and animal domestication

2.9.6. Agriculture provided a reliable food source, and grain surpluses enabled people to store grain for long-term distribution and use to settle permanently making population of settlements begin to increase

2.9.7. Global distribution of plant domestication hearths (fig 11.4) SW Asia: plant domestication centered on wheat barely other grains Mesoamerican region: maize (corn) squashes several kinds of beans Central China hearth: attracted much of attention possibly being the worlds first in early development in agriculture W AFrica: agricultural research shows agriculture in this area is recent and might not have developed independently there The knowledge of certain crops spread, which meant the crop diffused into other regions (mercantilism and European colonialism). Some regions that are centers of a crop weren't the paces where they were originally domesticated (fig 11.1) millet diffused to India from the West African region sorghum diffused to China from the West African region maize (corn) diffused to its now popular growing place in North America from mesoamerica Corn later was brought to Africa from the Portuguese and is now very popular The Ireland and Idaho white potato came from the Andean highlands(S America) but was brought to Europe in the 1600s where it became a staple (important) from Ireland to the eastern expanses of the North European Plain Bananas that mainly grow in Meso-america came from SE Asia as did a variety of yams

2.9.8. *all the agricultural hearths are in the tropics.

2.10. Domestication of Animals

2.10.1. animal domestication: genetic modification of an animal so that it is more easily controlled by humans believed to have started before plant domestication or recently, around 8,000 years ago - well after crop agriculture

2.10.2. Began when civilizations had more free time Some animals got attached to the civilization by scavenging for food Orphans might have been adopted as pets

2.10.3. Domestication by animal: Goat: in the Zagros Mountains/Fertile Crescent as long as 10,000 years ago Sheep: in Anatolia (Turkey) around 9500 years ago

2.10.4. Advantages of animal domestication their use as beasts of burden source of meat Providers of milk New measure of security

2.10.5. Contained animals begin to be different than those left in the wild

2.10.6. General areas: SW Asia and adjacent parts to the Mediterranean basin goat sheep camel SE Asians pigs water buffalo chickens water fowl (ducks, geese) East India and South Burma (S Asia) cattle - became very important in the regional culture Central Asia yak horse some species of goats sheep Mesoamerica and Andean Highlands llama alpaca species of pigs species of turkey Some domesticated at more than one place during the same time period water buffalo - SE and S Asia Camels - W and E ends of SW Asia pig - numerous areas cattle - regions other than S Asia Dogs & Cats - human settlements very early (possible one of the first animals domesticated) and in widely se[arated regions Very few animals had specific hearths llama alpaca yak turkey reindeer

2.10.7. Only 5 domesticated mammals are important thought the world Cow Sheep Pig Goat Horse (Or Oxen)

2.10.8. the big (100lbs and over), herbivores, terrestrial animals, we have 148 species that could possible be domesticated, but only 14 have been successful (all domesticated at least 4500 years ago)

2.10.9. Uses of the animals: relieved some burden for early farmers Animal waste was used as fertilizers

2.10.10. First place where domesticated plants and animals were successfully integrated was SW Asia (the Fertile Crescent)

2.11. Subsistence Agriculture

2.11.1. subsistence agriculture: small-scale, low tech agriculture emphasizing production for local consumption - most common in tropical regions

2.11.2. shifting cultivation: cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings that are relocated from year to year - most common in tropical and subtropical zones (traditional farmers had abandoned after soil became infertile) gave ancient farmers opportunities to experiment with various plants to learn the effects of weeding and crop car to cope with environmental vagaries to disconcern the decreased fertility of soil after sustained farming

2.11.3. slash and burn agriculture (also called swidden, milk, or patch agriculture): cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings created by slashing the foliage with machetes and burning to replenish nutrients Trees are cut down and all existing vegetation is burned off farmers us machetes and knifes to slash down trees and tall vegetation, and then burn the vegetation on the ground a layer of as he from the fire settles on the ground and contributes the soil's fertility

3. How Did Agriculture Change With Industrialization?

3.1. Second Agricultural Revolution: began in Europe in 1600s - the application of innovations, machinery and technologies to agriculture - greatly increasing production

3.1.1. When there were many people working in factories instead of in agricultural fields

3.2. Significant changes happened with European farming

3.2.1. in the 1600-1700s. new crops came into Europe from the trade with the Americas corn potatoes many suited for farming in the climate and soil of western Europe, bringing new lands (marginal) into cultivation

3.2.2. 1830 New technologies started coming into play making farming easier and less wasteful Fertilizers on crops and feeding artificial feeds to livestock More food for larger populations, enabling the growth of a secondary (industrial) economy

3.3. McCormick's mechanical reaper:

3.3.1. Harvesting is what took the longest with the most labor

3.3.2. His invention took off in the 1840s purportedly increasing yields of individual farmers by at least ten times. Today his company is one of the largest agriculture implement companies in the world today

3.4. Advances in breeding livestock enabled farmers to develop new breeds (selective breeding)

3.4.1. The most common breeds of dairy cattle found in N America today travel their lineage back to the 2nd Agricultural Revolution in Europe.

3.4.2. In the 17-1800s, European farmers bred dairy cattle to adapt to different climates and topography

3.5. Innovations during the Industrial Revolution (late 1800 - early 1900) helped sustain the 2nd Agricultural Revolution

3.5.1. The Railroad helped move agriculture into new regions, such as the U.S's Great Plains. John Hudson: traced the major role railroads and agriculture played in changing the landscape of that region from open prairie to individual farmsteads. Advertised railroads to convince people to migrate to the Great Plains region in the U.S.

3.5.2. the internal combustible engine made possible the invention of tractors, combines, and multitude of large farm equipment

3.5.3. New banking and lending practices helped farmers afford such equipment

3.6. Understanding the Spatial Layout of Agriculture

3.6.1. In the 1800s, Johann Heinrich von Thünen (1783-1850) experienced the 2nd Agricultural Revolution first-hand and created the Von Thünen's Model. von Thünen Model :model that explains the location of agricultural activities - rings around the market based on minimizing transportation costs When he mapped this pattern, he found that each town or make center was surrounded by a set or more-or-less concentric rings within which particular commodities or crops dominated Orange: nearest the town, farmers produced commodities that were perishable and commanded high prices, such as dairy products and strawberries. Much effort would of into production because of the cost or land the closer you got into the center city (black) Green: In his time, there were still forests outlining the city that provided wood for fuel and building Yellow: crops were less perishable and bulkier, including wheat and other grains Red: livestock raising began to replace field crops There were variable that made differences in the shape of the model from city-to-city and differences in crops that were able to be planted depending on climate

3.6.2. Geographer Lee Liu: studied the spatial pattern of agricultural production in one province of China Liu found that the farmers living in a village would farm lands close to the ciliate as well as lands far away from the ciliate with high levels of intensity the method used citied spatially, resulting in land improvements close to the ciliate and land degradation farther from the village.

3.7. The Third Agricultural Revolution

3.7.1. Third Agricultural Revolution: began in 1960's - the application of Genetically Modified Organisms, improved techniques and technologies to agriculture - greatly increased production

3.7.2. Green Revolution: a synonym for the Third Agricultural Revolution (not to be confused with the recent trend to "go green")

3.7.3. dates back to the 1930s, when agricultural scientists in the American Midwest began experimenting w/ technologically manipulated seed varieties to increase crop yields. improved the production of rice brought new high-yield varieties of wheat and corn from the U.S. to other parts of the world (particularly S and SE Asia)

3.7.4. By 1982 they genetically produced IR36 bred from 13 parents so it was tolerant against 15 pests able to grow within 110 days in warm conditions making it possible to grow 3 crops in a year in some places By, 1992 it was the most widely grown crop on Earth

3.7.5. The new seed varieties, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation in some placed, and significant capital improvement were what helped drastically increase production

3.7.6. The only place not greatly effected by the Green Revolution was Africa, which needs different crops because of less arable land

3.7.7. Genetically engineered food is helping the world with the number of malnourished people, but some people question if there are health risks involves

3.7.8. The Green Revolution does not help of the small family owned farms

3.8. New Genetically Modified Foods

3.8.1. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): crops with traits that are made possible with advanced genetic engineering 75% of all processed foods in the U.S 88% of all acres in corn 94% of all acres in soybeans

3.8.2. Some regions of the world accept them and others they are banned Poorer countries don't have access to the technology unlike western Europe In western Europe the public has a strong negative reaction to them although they are proved safe. Such opinions has spread to poorer countries, so they ban them

3.9. Regional and Local Change

3.9.1. REcent shifts from the subsistence agriculture to commercial agriculture have had dramatic impacts on rural life In Latin America, dramatic increases in the production of cash crops have occurred at the expense of crop production for local consumption, pushing subsistence farming to marginal lands In Asia (the Green Revolutions greatest impact)

3.9.2. When land traditionally used for family living (women tend) is converted to commercial farming where its required to work many hours a day every day and women are not able to work with the crops with other chores they have to do

3.9.3. "Changes in agricultural practices around the world not only alter rural landscapes, but also affect family and community relationships." meaning, with women employed outside of the home they do not have time or place to harvest food for their families. Women used to be in charge of feeding their families but commercial agriculture is dominated by male ownership The family is growing rice for someone else, but they don't get ay of that rice and they are still expected to buy more of it.

3.10. Impacts of Agricultural Modernization on Earlier Practices

3.10.1. Pressures Hunter-Gatherers Face today change their livelihoods settle in one place and farm digging wells or building medical buildings, permanent homes, or schools for them

3.10.2. Subsistence farming (growing enough to feed themselves) mainly still exists in Africa Central America Tropical South America (Upper S America) parts of SE Asia Phillippians Indonesia Papua New Guinea South of China Countries

3.10.3. Subsistence Farming From 1500 to 1950, European powers sought to "modernize" the economies of their colonies b ending it and getting the farms into colonial systems of production and exchange. Their methods were sometimes harsh: Other methods

4. What Imprint Does Agriculture Make On The Cultural Landscape?

4.1. Cadastral system: the method of land survey through which land ownership and property lines are defined.

4.1.1. adopted in places where settlement could be regulated by law, and land surveys were crucial to their implementation

4.2. rectangular survey system: also called the Public Land Survey - the grid system used to divide land west of the Appalachian Mountains

4.2.1. the ones that appear as checkerboards across agricultural fields

4.3. township and range system: rectangular land division system created by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmland of the U.S. interior - 6 square mile townships and 1 mile square sections

4.3.1. the Homestead Act: a homesteader received one section of land (160 acres) after singing and making improvements on the land for 5 years.

4.3.2. The patterns of farms on the landscape in the interior of the US reflects the system with farms spaced by sections. 1/2 sections, and 1/4 sections

4.4. Canada adopted a similar cadastral system as it sought to allocate land in the Prairie Provinces. In portions of the US and Canada different cadastral patters predominate

4.5. metes and bounds system: land division system east of the Appalachian Mountains - relies on description of land ownership and natural features

4.6. long lot survey system: land division system of French origin whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads or canals

4.7. primogeniture: system in which oldest son (or occasionally daughter) inherits the family land after the father's death

4.7.1. Popular in: Northern Europe the Americas S Africa Australia New Zealand

4.8. land is divided among heirs (considerable fragmentation can occur over time)

4.8.1. Asia

4.8.2. Africa

4.8.3. Southern Europe

4.8.4. allotted Indian reservations in the U.S.

4.9. fragmentation is still common in many parts of the world

4.10. Villages

4.10.1. Traditional farm-village life is still popular in India still much of it is subsistence farm occupies over 60% of the population Subsaharan Africa China SE Asia

4.10.2. the Worlds ' core areas agriculture has taken a very different form

4.10.3. In the U.S. only 2% of the population is engaged in agriculture today. In rural villages, the town is a mix of farmers and people how commute and work in urban areas

4.10.4. Village shaped: in Japan farming villages, houses are tightly packed together so they are not using land where crops can grow (unlike the U.S. midwest) in Indonesia, nucleated villages are located every 1/2 mile or so along a rural road. in Upper Europe where it is hilly, villages were settled on the tops of hills with often a castle atop the hills this offered protection saved the flat land for farming Linear: villages oriented along roads/rivers in Western Europe, villages are located on dikes and levees (linear) Cluster: small town all together cluster village may have begun as a small hamlet at the intersection of two roads and then developed by accretion Round: the European version of the East African circular village, with its central cattle corral, is the round village or rundling (first used by Slavic farmer-herdsmen in E Europe and was later modified by Germanic settlers Walled: to protect the population of the village (Fertile Crescent) In Europe they were sometimes surrounded by moats Grid: modern villages, by be arranged on a grid pattern. (It is not a modern invention)

4.10.5. 1/2 of the world's population still lives in villages or rural areas: 50% of China's population 705 of India's population is non urban most inhabitants of Indonesia Bangladesh Pakistan other countries of the global economic periphery, including those in Africa

4.11. NAFTA impact

4.11.1. The impact that NAFTA has had on corn farmers in Mexico is after NAFTA no longer protected its corn production, with the thought that corn prices would fall if Mexico joined NAFTA

4.12. Functional Differentiation within Villages

4.12.1. In Africa, to show more wealth and a higher class, they will have a better house and sometimes in a better location

4.12.2. The functional differentiation of building within farm villages is more elaborate in some societies than in others

4.12.3. Protection of livestock and storage of harvested crops are primary functions of farm villages, and in many villages where subsistence farming is the prevailing way of life, the storage place for food is constructed with as much care as the best-build house In India, the paddy-bin made of mud (in which rice is stored) often stands inside the house, Similarly livestock pens are often attached to houses, or, as in Africa dwellings are built in a circle surrounding the corral

4.12.4. Function Differentiation of buildings is greets in Western cultures A prosperous North American farm would likely include: a 2-story house stable barn various outbuildings garage for motorized equipment workshop shed for tools silo for gain storage The space these structures occupy can exceed that used by entire villages in Japan, China, and other agrarian regions where spaces is at a greater premium

5. How Is Agriculture Currently Organized Geographically, And How Has Agribusiness Influenced the Contemporary Geography of Agriculture?

5.1. factors to consider when trying to understand global agricultural patterns:

5.1.1. market location

5.1.2. land use

5.1.3. transportation costs

5.1.4. climate and soil conditions

5.1.5. variations in farming methods and technology

5.1.6. the role of governments and social norms

5.1.7. lasting impacts of history

5.2. commercial agriculture: large scale, high tech agriculture emphasizing production for sale and profit

5.2.1. Commercial farming has come to dominate in the world's economic core, semi-periphery, and periphery core: one high productive crop with commercial farming (becomes an agribusiness) semi-periphery: mix of agribusiness and sustainable farming periphery: the production of cash crops in poorer countries is still perpetuated by loan and aid requirements from lending countries.

5.2.2. the spatial expansion of modern commercial agriculture began in the 18th and 19th centuries when Europe became a market for agricultural products from around the world

5.2.3. major changes in the transportation of food (refrigeration) helped spread certain foods from one side of the world to the other in the 20th century

5.3. monoculture: dependence on a single agricultural commodity such as coffee or bananas

5.3.1. countries started to depend on certain countries to produce a product they are known for

5.4. The World Map of Climates

5.4.1. All the elements of weather can make an impact on what crops can grow where

5.4.2. Koppen Climatic Classification System: system for classifying world climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation

5.4.3. climatic regions: areas of the world with similar climates Humid Equatorial Climate A Climate Regions: hot or very warm and generally humid Af Climate Regions: "no dry season" regions are equatorial rainforest regions Am Climate Regions: "short dry season" climate is known as the monsoon climate Aw Climate Regions: (African) savanna Dry Climate BS: steppe - Semiarid BW: desert - Arid Humid Temperate Climate Cf: moist, does not get as cold as in Canada or as warm as the Amazon Basin; no dry season Cw: similar to Cf but dry winter Cs: "dry summer" with mild climate Humid Cold Climate U.S. upper midwest Canada Siberia D: very cold in the winter and long. Usually in the interior of the continent and not the coasts Cold Polar Climate cold throughout the year no plant life frozen ground year around Highland Climate unclassified highlands

5.5. The World Map of Agriculture

5.5.1. drier lands rely more on livestock

5.5.2. Cash Crops and Plantation Agriculture European colonial powers used their land for their benefit. Having the poorer countries grow two "cash" crops and have the money and product come back to Europe plantation agriculture: large estates owned by individuals, families or corporations organized to produce cash crops - most were established in the tropic by European colonialists Central and South America Africa S Asia Many of the most productive plantations are owned by European or American individuals or corporations The United Fruit Company in Guatemala influenced political events in the 50s because many of its owners/investors helped destroy the Guatemalan government over concerns of communism

5.5.3. Commercial Livestock, Fruit, and Grain Agriculture largest areas of commercial agriculture lie outside the tropics Dairying Fruit, truck, and specialized crops Livestock and crop farming Commercial Grain Farming livestock ranching: raising of domesticated animals for their meat, leather, wool, etc.

5.5.4. Subsistence Agriculture subsistence crop and livestock farming intensively subsistence farming (chiefly rice) intensively subsistence farming (chiefly wheat and other crops

5.5.5. Mediterranean Agriculture Mediterranean agriculture: specialized farming that occurs only in areas with Mediterranean climates - grapes, olives, citrus fruits, figs, dates, etc. tend to be popular and high priced

5.5.6. Drug Agriculture Because of the high demand for drugs - particularly in the global economic core - farmers in the periphery often find it more profitable to cultivate poppy, coca, or marijuana plants than grow standard food crops Coca (cocaine): grown widely in Columbia (50% for world cultivation), Peru, and Bolivia Heroin and opium (opium poppy plants): SE and S Asia The U.S. has affected production of illegal drugs in the U.S., Afghanistan, and Columbia. Most of the drug trafficking moved from Columbia to northern Mexico. Mexicans now control 11 of the 13 largest drug markets in the U.S. Drug cartels that oversee the drug trade have brought crime and violence to the places where they hold sway Most of the U.S's drug supply comes from either Mexico, Columbia, Canada (Marijuana), and Afghanistan

5.5.7. Informal Agriculture The government doesn't keep track of what they grow in small plots of land, but the families are able to sustain themselves

5.6. Political Influences on Agriculture

5.6.1. cash crops: crops, such as tobacco, sugar, and cotton, raised in large quantities in order to be sold for profit

5.6.2. How governments influence agriculture cash crops Control the market, and cost of products Governments can cause money inequality

5.7. Socio-cultural Influences on Agriculture

5.7.1. luxury crops: non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, tobacco

5.7.2. Fair Trade Agriculture: gives 40% back to the producer social movement: makes buyer make a conscious decision and think about the producer as you buy it

5.8. Agribusiness and the Changing Geography of Agriculture

5.8.1. Agribusiness: is changing the geography of agriculture by becoming a business and not just a way of life and specializing the market

5.8.2. agribusiness: general term for businesses that provide the many goods and services that support the agriculture industry

5.9. Environmental Impacts of Commercial Agriculture

5.9.1. environmental problems created as a result of agricultural practices: over harvesting fish populations has lead to endangered species clearing of forests for agriculture has lead to version and pollution Used of chemicals has soiled ground water

5.10. The Challenge of Feeding Everyone

5.10.1. 1 billion people are malnourished

5.10.2. As cities expand they take up some of the most fertile land and losing productive farmland.

5.10.3. we are also losing farmland by expendable wealth (the wealthy by huge areas of land to live on that is not used for agricultural purposes)

5.10.4. global food prices are on the rise because of population growth lose of agricultural land use of food for biofuel (corn being used as fuel crop not as eating crop) corrupt(bad) government

5.10.5. food Desert: limited access to fresh nutritious foods issues for people who live in "food deserts" purchase high energy non nutritious foods lack access to public transportation high obesity rates

5.10.6. food desert: an area characterized by a lack of affordable, fresh, and nutritious foods