Forms and Structures

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Forms and Structures by Mind Map: Forms and Structures

1. Form

1.1. The form of a structure is how the structure looks and what type of structure you can classify it as

1.1.1. For example the form of bridges a long time ago was just a log that fell over a stream, but now modern day bridges are built in many different forms

1.1.2. Another example is a domed stadium, the form of this structure is it has solid concrete walls, metal frames and have enclosing roofs. Also domed stadiums are circular

2. Types of Structures

2.1. Solid Structures

2.1.1. Solid structures are structures that are almost or are solid all the way through A example of a solid structure is a brick, this structure is a solid structure, because this structure is solid all the way through Another example of a solid structure is a mountain, because just like a brick it is solid all the way through even if some mountains contain caves

2.2. Frame Structures

2.2.1. Frame structures are structures that have separate parts that are fastened together to make the structure A example of a frame structure is a car frame because the parts of the car are fastened together Another example is a bicycle frame, because all the parts of a bicycle are fastened together to make a bike

2.3. Shell Structures

2.3.1. Shell structures are structures that are hollow on the inside, but are strong, as well as light for its size A example of a shell structure is an egg shell, because the egg shell is hollow on the inside, but even if it is hollow it is also strong for its size and weight Another example of a shell structure is an igloo, because an igloo is also hollow on the inside, but it allows people to live inside an igloo making it very strong

2.4. Combination Structures

2.4.1. Combination Structures are structures that are made up of a combination of shell, solid, and frame structures. In order to be a combo structure it must use 2 or more types of structures An example of a combination structure is a house, a house is a combination structures, because a house is made of solid structures such as the bricks, nails, and wood, the wood are nailed together making a frame structure. The whole house is a shell structure, since its hollow on the inside Another example of a combination structure is a human skeleton, because the bones are considered solid structures, they are connected and fastened together to make a frame structure and the skull is hollow so it is a shell structure.

3. Applying Forces

3.1. Direction

3.1.1. Direction is how the force is being applied (by a push or pull) For example you could push a stool away from you, or you could pull a stool towards you Another example is that you could lift a stool up

3.2. Magnitude

3.2.1. The Magnitude is the speed and strength of the the impact on your structure For example if the speed or the magnitude of wind hitting a tree is fast and strong the tree could fall over Another example is if the speed or magnitude of wind hitting a tree is slow and light, the tree won't fall down, but will only move from side to side

3.3. Plane of Application

3.3.1. The Plane of Application is the angle directed on the structure For example when a car hits another car at an angle there will be more damage, because there is nothing protecting the car, or preventing a lighter hit Another example is when a car hits another car at a a head on collision, this could cause less damage than an angled collision, because there is a bumper which absorbs impact

3.4. Point of Application

3.4.1. The Point of Application is where the force is being applied on the structure For example if you push a cabinet at the bottom it will slide sideways Another example is if you push a cabinet at the top the cabinat could tip over

4. Center of Gravity

4.1. The Center of Gravity is where the most amount of mass lies within the object

4.1.1. For example if you lift your left foot up, your center of gravity will move from the middle of your body to your right side

4.1.2. Another example is on a ruler the center of gravity is at the middle, but if you add more weight on one side the center of gravity will move

5. Function

5.1. The function of a structure is what it can do/ the purpose of the structure

5.1.1. For example the purpose of a bridge is to span a gap. The bridge will allow people or other structures to get over a gap safety

5.1.2. The purpose of a seat belt is to retain people in their seats, and so prevent or reduce injuries suffered in a crash.

6. Stability

6.1. Stability is how strong the structure can be (the base) without collapsing or experincing structural failure

6.1.1. Some ways you could make a structure stable is widening the base, widening the base will lower the center of gravity, therefore making it stable. For example the Eiffel Tower has a wide base, making this structure stable

6.1.2. Another way you could make a structure stable is adding more weight to the base and adding more support points, adding more support points would make the structure more strong. For example the Golden gate bridge has many support points

7. External Forces

7.1. Loads

7.1.1. Dynamic Load Dynamic Loads are loads in which the force can change on a structure A dynamic load would be weather on a house because it can change its impact and amount of force on the structure A shoe is an example of a dynamic load because when you run and your foot is on the ground,it adds pressure, but when you lift your foot it takes pressure off

7.1.2. Live Load Live Loads are loads that add temporary weight to the structure Birds on a Hydro Tower is an example of a live load, because it adds temporary weight of the bird to the structure Vehicles on a bridge is another example of a live load, because the truck could go on and off the structure

7.1.3. Dead Load Dead Loads are loads that the structure itself puts on it A table is an example of a dead load, because the weight of the table acts as its own weight A chair is another example of a dead load, because gravity acts on the materials of the chair, the chair must support its own weight

7.1.4. Static Load Static loads are the forces of gravity on the structure

7.2. Gravity

7.2.1. Gravity is a force that pulls structures down to the center of the earth Everything is being pulled down by gravity, for example houses, bodies of water, towers etc In space there is no gravity pulling things down, so when astronauts go into space, they could float around in their space ships

8. Internal Forces

8.1. Compression

8.1.1. Compression is a force that presses or squeezes an object together Another example is you putting a book on top of your head, when you do this, you will feel the compression of your neck muscles For example when you lift someone up, the person on the bottom will experience compression

8.2. Tension

8.2.1. Tension is a force that stretches an object apart. When you put tension on an object, the object will expand or become longer For example when you want something from a high shelf, to get it you need to stretch your arms, stretching your arms will cause tension Another example is stretching a elastic band, when you stretch a elastic band it will expand creating tension

8.3. Shear

8.3.1. Shear is a force that pushes a structure in opposite directions or that can bend a structure An example of shear would be when you are hanging from a pull-up bar, when you do this your hands and feet are pushing in different directions, because of gravity Another example is when you use scissors, because when you use scissors, the handles would go in different directions

8.4. Torsion

8.4.1. Torsion is a force that twists a object in opposite directions An example of torsion is when you spin, the twisting motion will cause tension inside of you Another example is a tornado, the wind would twist in a tornado, the twisting motion would cause torson