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1. + The Initiation and Completion of DNA Replication in Chromosomes

2. + DNA Replication Mechanisms

3. + References

4. Chapter 16 The Cytoskeleton

4.1. + The Self-Assembly and Dynamic Structure of Cytoskeletal Filaments

4.2. + How Cells Regulate Their Cytoskeletal Filaments

4.3. + Molecular Motors

4.4. + The Cytoskeleton and Cell Behavior

4.5. + References

5. + The Molecular Basis of Cancer-Cell Behavior

6. Part I Introduction to the Cell

6.1. Chapter 1 Cells and Genomes

6.1.1. + The Universal Features of Cells on Earth

6.1.2. + The Diversity of Genomes and the Tree of Life

6.1.3. + Genetic Information in Eucaryotes

6.1.4. + References

6.2. Chapter 2 Cell Chemistry and Biosynthesis

6.2.1. + The Chemical Components of a Cell

6.2.2. + Catalysis and the Use of Energy by Cells

6.2.3. + How Cells Obtain Energy from Food

6.2.4. + References

6.3. Chapter 3 Proteins

6.3.1. + The Shape and Structure of Proteins

6.3.2. + Protein Function

6.3.3. + References

7. Part II Basic Genetic Mechanisms

7.1. Chapter 4 DNA and Chromosomes

7.1.1. + The Structure and Function of DNA

7.1.2. + Chromosomal DNA and Its Packaging in the Chromatin Fiber

7.1.3. + The Global Structure of Chromosomes

7.1.4. + References

7.2. Chapter 5 DNA Replication, Repair, and Recombination

7.2.1. + The Maintenance of DNA Sequences

7.2.2. + DNA Repair

7.2.3. + General Recombination

7.2.4. + Site-Specific Recombination

7.2.5. + References

7.3. Chapter 6 How Cells Read the Genome: From DNA to Protein

7.3.1. + From DNA to RNA

7.3.2. + From RNA to Protein

7.3.3. + The RNA World and the Origins of Life

7.3.4. + References

7.4. Chapter 7 Control of Gene Expression

7.4.1. + An Overview of Gene Control

7.4.2. + DNA-Binding Motifs in Gene Regulatory Proteins

7.4.3. + How Genetic Switches Work

7.4.4. + The Molecular Genetic Mechanisms That Create Specialized Cell Types

7.4.5. + Posttranscriptional Controls

7.4.6. + How Genomes Evolve

7.4.7. + References

8. Part III Methods

8.1. Chapter 8 Manipulating Proteins, DNA, and RNA

8.1.1. + Isolating Cells and Growing Them in Culture

8.1.2. + Fractionation of Cells

8.1.3. + Isolating, Cloning, and Sequencing DNA

8.1.4. + Analyzing Protein Structure and Function

8.1.5. + Studying Gene Expression and Function

8.1.6. + References

8.2. Chapter 9 Visualizing Cells

8.2.1. + Looking at the Structure of Cells in the Microscope

8.2.2. + Visualizing Molecules in Living Cells

8.2.3. + References

9. Part V Cells in Their Social Context

9.1. Chapter 19 Cell Junctions, Cell Adhesion, and the Extracellular Matrix

9.1.1. + Cell Junctions

9.1.2. + Cell-Cell Adhesion

9.1.3. + The Extracellular Matrix of Animals

9.1.4. + Integrins

9.1.5. + The Plant Cell Wall

9.1.6. + References

9.2. Chapter 20 Germ Cells and Fertilization

9.2.1. + The Benefits of Sex

9.2.2. + Meiosis

9.2.3. + Primordial Germ Cells and Sex Determination in Mammals

9.2.4. + Eggs

9.2.5. + Sperm

9.2.6. + Fertilization

9.2.7. + References

9.3. Chapter 21 Development of Multicellular Organisms

9.3.1. + Universal Mechanisms of Animal Development

9.3.2. + Caenorhabditis Elegans: Development from the Perspective of the Individual Cell

9.3.3. + Drosophila and the Molecular Genetics of Pattern Formation: Genesis of the Body Plan

9.3.4. + Homeotic Selector Genes and the Patterning of the Anteroposterior Axis

9.3.5. + Organogenesis and the Patterning of Appendages

9.3.6. + Cell Movements and the Shaping of the Vertebrate Body

9.3.7. + The Mouse

9.3.8. + Neural Development

9.3.9. + Plant Development

9.3.10. + References

9.4. Chapter 22 Histology: The Lives and Deaths of Cells in Tissues

9.4.1. + Epidermis and Its Renewal by Stem Cells

9.4.2. + Sensory Epithelia

9.4.3. + The Airways and the Gut

9.4.4. + Blood Vessels and Endothelial Cells

9.4.5. + Renewal by Multipotent Stem Cells: Blood Cell Formation

9.4.6. + Genesis, Modulation, and Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle

9.4.7. + Fibroblasts and Their Transformations: The Connective-Tissue Cell Family

9.4.8. + Stem-Cell Engineering

9.4.9. + References

9.5. Chapter 23 Cancer

9.5.1. + Cancer as a Microevolutionary Process

9.5.2. + The Preventable Causes of Cancer

9.5.3. + Finding the Cancer-Critical Genes

9.5.4. + Cancer Treatment: Present and Future

9.5.5. + References

9.6. Chapter 24 The Adaptive Immune System

9.6.1. + Lymphocytes and the Cellular Basis of Adaptive Immunity

9.6.2. + B Cells and Antibodies

9.6.3. + The Generation of Antibody Diversity

9.6.4. + T Cells and MHC Proteins

9.6.5. + Helper T Cells and Lymphocyte Activation

9.6.6. + References

9.7. Chapter 25 Pathogens, Infection, and Innate Immunity

9.7.1. + Introduction to Pathogens

9.7.2. + Cell Biology of Infection

9.7.3. + Innate Immunity

9.7.4. + References

10. Part IV Internal Organization of the Cell

10.1. Chapter 10 Membrane Structure

10.1.1. + The Lipid Bilayer

10.1.2. + Membrane Proteins

10.1.3. + References

10.2. Chapter 11 Membrane Transport of Small Molecules and the Electrical Properties of Membranes

10.2.1. + Principles of Membrane Transport

10.2.1.1. # Protein-free Lipid Bilayers Are Highly Impermeable to Ions

10.2.1.2. # There Are Two Main Classes of Membrane Transport Proteins: Carriers and Channels

10.2.1.3. # Active Transport Is Mediated by Carrier Proteins Coupled to an Energy Source

10.2.1.4. # Ionophores Can Be Used as Tools to Increase the Permeability of Membranes to Specific Ions

10.2.2. + Carrier Proteins and Active Membrane Transport

10.2.3. + Ion Channels and the Electrical Properties of Membranes

10.2.4. + References

10.3. Chapter 12 Intracellular Compartments and Protein Sorting

10.3.1. + The Compartmentalization of Cells

10.3.2. + The Transport of Molecules between the Nucleus and the Cytosol

10.3.3. + The Transport of Proteins into Mitochondria and Chloroplasts

10.3.4. + Peroxisomes

10.3.5. + The Endoplasmic Reticulum

10.3.6. + References

10.4. Chapter 13 Intracellular Vesicular Traffic

10.4.1. + The Molecular Mechanisms of Membrane Transport and the Maintenance of Compartmental Diversity

10.4.1.1. # There Are Various Types of Coated Vesicles

10.4.1.1.1. picture

10.4.1.2. # The Assembly of a Clathrin Coat Drives Vesicle Formation

10.4.1.2.1. <html><img src="images/18q6ajsj91v3uu47ets4oqeu6j.jpg">

10.4.1.3. # Both The Pinching-off and Uncoating of Coated Vesicles Are Regulated Processes

10.4.1.4. # Not All Transport Vesicles are Spherical

10.4.1.5. # Monomeric GTPases Control Coat Assembly

10.4.1.6. # SNARE Proteins and Targeting GTPases Guide Membrane Transport

10.4.1.7. # Interacting SNAREs Need To Be Pried Apart Before They Can Function Again

10.4.1.8. # Rab Proteins Help Ensure the Specificity of Vesicle Docking

10.4.1.9. # SNAREs May Mediate Membrane Fusion

10.4.1.10. # Viral Fusion Proteins and SNAREs May Use Similar Strategies

10.4.2. + Transport from the ER through the Golgi Apparatus

10.4.3. + Transport from the Trans Golgi Network to Lysosomes

10.4.4. + Transport into the Cell from the Plasma Membrane: Endocytosis

10.4.5. + Transport from the Trans Golgi Network to the Cell Exterior: Exocytosis

10.4.6. + References

10.5. Chapter 14 Energy Conversion: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts

10.5.1. + The Mitochondrion

10.5.2. + Electron-Transport Chains and Their Proton Pumps

10.5.3. + Chloroplasts and Photosynthesis

10.5.4. + The Genetic Systems of Mitochondria and Plastids

10.5.5. + The Evolution of Electron-Transport Chains

10.5.6. + References

10.6. Chapter 15 Cell Communication

10.6.1. + General Principles of Cell Communication

10.6.2. + Signaling through G-Protein-Linked Cell-Surface Receptors

10.6.3. + Signaling through Enzyme-Linked Cell-Surface Receptors

10.6.4. + Signaling Pathways That Depend on Regulated Proteolysis

10.6.5. + Signaling in Plants

10.7. Chapter 17 The Cell Cycle and Programmed Cell Death

10.7.1. + An Overview of the Cell Cycle

10.7.2. + Components of the Cell-Cycle Control System

10.7.3. + Intracellular Control of Cell-Cycle Events

10.7.4. + Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)

10.7.5. + Extracellular Control of Cell Division, Cell Growth, and Apoptosis

10.7.6. + References

10.8. Chapter 18 The Mechanics of Cell Division

10.8.1. + An Overview of M Phase

10.8.2. + Mitosis

10.8.3. + Cytokinesis

10.8.4. + References