Ch. 8 Selecting Strategies - The Heart of Instructional Design

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Ch. 8 Selecting Strategies - The Heart of Instructional Design by Mind Map: Ch. 8 Selecting Strategies - The Heart of Instructional Design

1. Instructional strategies serve to "foster student learning, including pre-instructional activities, presentation of content, learner participation, assessment and follow-through activities."

1.1. Teaching strategies - Techniques used by an instructor or the instruction to bring about a specific learning outcome.

1.2. Learning strategies - Steps taken by the learner to make learning more efficient and effective.

1.3. Selecting strategies is influenced by all other elements in the design, but most notably by learner characteristics, interests, and needs.

2. Five step, flexible process for identifying instructional strategies = Step One

2.1. Step One - Revisit and refine learning context design.

2.1.1. A. Specify the time, place and dispersion of the instruction.

2.1.2. B. Specify the delivery mode to be used. Face to face? online? blended? module?

2.1.3. C. Specify the type of learning grouping necessary. Individual? one-to-one grouping? small group? large group?

2.1.4. D. Consider human and non-human resources and funds needed for development and implementation.

2.1.5. E. Consider development time required versus the established project schedule.

2.1.6. F. Consider implementation time required for a particular strategy , versus the desired length and time allowed for completing instruction.

2.1.7. G. Consider learner familiarity with and responsiveness to the proposed context and technologies.

2.1.8. H. Consider available infrastructure to support the use of specific contexts, delivery systems and technologies.

2.1.9. I. Consider stakeholder wishes and other project constraints.

2.1.10. J. Write up a description of the proposed learning context, including estimate of human and non-human resources, and submit to stakeholders for their approval.

3. Five step, flexible process for identifying instructional strategies = Step Two

3.1. Step Two - Identify assumptions and pedagogical approaches .

3.1.1. Once you determine what is possible, determine what is appropriate. Choose a strategy that is most capable of fostering the type of learning outcomes you and stakeholders have identified.

3.1.2. Identify your own and your stakeholders assumptions about learning and how they are reflected in the outcomes. Assumptions guide you in choosing one or more appropriate pedagogical approaches. Instructivist Approach - Learning Outcomes - Establish and communicate specific outcomes related to knowing and doing and that require mastery. Constructivist Approach - Learning Outcomes - Inform learners of overall goals and outcomes and have individuals customize personal outcomes to match their interests and goals. Have groups socially negotiate outcomes. Connectivist Approach - Learning Outcomes - Establish broad goals emphasizing competency in using resources. Encourage learners to define specific outcomes based on their own personal goals, needs and interests. Foster new forms of social and participatory practices.

4. Five step, flexible process for identifying instructional strategies = Step Three

4.1. Step Three - Identify appropriate interactions and strategies.

4.1.1. Organizational strategies - Define the structure and flow of learning experience.

4.1.2. Engagement strategies - Designed to involve learners in interactive activities.

4.1.3. Technology delivery strategies - Determine how the learning experience will be delivered. Virtual Environment Challenge: Level in which the learner feels 'isolated' in a virtual environment impacts learner motivation and learning. The level to which the learner perceives that others are aware of him or her in the instructional situation is known as 'social presence.'

4.1.4. Instructional Management delivery strategies - Determine how to direct learning strategies.

4.1.5. Five types of interaction - **NOTE! Examples of strategies by instructional intent and interaction type located in Table 8.4 p 163 in text.** Learner-to-Content - How learners interact with content. i.e.: Do the memorize it? Understand it? Interpret it? Learner-to-Instructor/Facilitator - "Instructor" could be the facilitator, grader, designer or webmaster. Designate interaction times. i.e.: face to face or virtual classroom? office hours?) and/or interaction expecations. Learner-to-Context - How the learner interacts with the learning environment. Contextual design can enhance learning by adding to the realism of the learning experience. Organizational strategies can present the learning and instructional experience in a way that lessons the load on the cognitive process. Learner-to-Learner - Strategies and activities can foster team building, learning from others' experiences, and refine interpersonal and communication skills. Whether virtual or in a physical classroom, content can be used as the hub of interactions. Research has shown that asynchronous discussion board activities foster many of the same learning outcomes as face-to-cafe discussions, without constraints on time and location. Learner-to-Self - Learners who reflect on the learning process may develop into self-directed, lifelong learners. Incorporate reflection within design.

5. Five step, flexible process for identifying instructional strategies = Step Four

5.1. Step Four - Select technologies to support the strategies identified . Covered in Ch. 9.

6. Five step, flexible process for identifying instructional strategies = Step Five

6.1. Step Five - Seek review and/or approval of the treatment, the aligned outcomes, assessments, strategies, and the technologies. Covered in Ch. 9.

7. Outcomes > reflect assumptions > that lead to > pedagogical approaches > supported by interactions > accomplished through instructional strategies.

8. Marzano's Nine Categories of Effective Strategies

8.1. Per Marzano's meta-analysis on over 100 research studies identified that these strategies increased learner achievement across student populations, content area, and grade levels. While helpful to consider these, always remember the first priority in selecting strategies is to select those that support the learning outcome you've identified.

8.2. 1. Identify similarities and differences.

8.3. 2. Summarize and take notes.

8.4. 3. Reinforce effort and provide recognition.

8.5. 4. Homework and practice.

8.6. 5. Non-linguistic representations.

8.7. 6. Cooperative learning.

8.8. 7. Set objectives and provide feedback.

8.9. 8. Generate and test hypothesis.

8.10. 9. Cues, questions and advance organizers.

9. Scaffolding

9.1. Scaffolding is instructional support that facilitates learning. Categorized into two types: supplantive and generative.

9.1.1. Supplantive - Explicitly states the instructional goals and provides information on how to think about, structure and retain content. Useful for novice learners, learners unfamiliar with the content, time is limited, information or skills are complicated or for tasks that require a high level of risk.

9.1.2. Generative - Strategies that encourage or allow the learner to define the goals, organize the material however they want, controls sequencing and pace of the instruction, self-monitor their understanding, and transfer the knowledge to a new context.

9.2. Modeling scaffolding - Instructor or instruction itself models the learning task, then gradually shifts the responsibility of completing the task to the learner.

9.3. Determine when to use more or less scaffolding based on the learners, task characteristics and instructional content. Use more scaffolding with the material is complex and the learner is a novice and less as the learner is more self-sufficient and to develop critical thinking skills.

9.4. Job aids and quick reference aids - focus on improving and supporting performance. This type of scaffolding should be used instead of more extensive instruction when:

9.4.1. 1. Reliance on memory is not essential.

9.4.2. 2. Its use would enable the task to be completed more efficiently.

9.4.3. 3. There are a substantial number of steps involved in the task.

9.4.4. 4. The activity or task is completed infrequently.

9.4.5. 5. The performance involved is complex and there are competing or conflicting activities.

9.4.6. When designing a job aid, orient the learner to the purpose of the job aid, introduce its format and contents and give the learner practice of the job aid.

10. Five specific strategy frameworks

10.1. 1. Gagne's Nine Elements of Instruction (Instructivist approach)

10.1.1. 1. Gain attention.

10.1.2. 2. Inform learners of the outcomes.

10.1.3. 3. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge.

10.1.4. 4. Present the stimulus (content or learning activity).

10.1.5. 5. Provide guidance to the learners.

10.1.6. 6. Elicit performance from the learners.

10.1.7. 7. Provide feedback to the learner.

10.1.8. 8. Assess the performance o the learner.

10.1.9. 9. Enhance the retention and the transfer of the knowledge, skill and/or attitude.

10.1.10. Note - The way in which the instructor or instructional design presents and organizes information communicates what is important and can model cognitive process for the learner. It can teach the learner how to focus, select, organize, integrate and apply content as they learn.

10.2. 2. BSCS Five Es Instructional Model (Constructivist approach) - Bybee

10.2.1. 1. Engagement

10.2.2. 2. Exploration

10.2.3. 3. Explanation

10.2.4. 4. Elaboration

10.2.5. 5. Evaluation

10.3. 3. Connectivist Learning Environments

10.3.1. To learn, individuals must have (or build) the skills to connect to personally meaningful resources, recognize patterns in the networks, and locate, filter, select from and manage an overwhelming amount of information. As the designer, build environments where learners can practice making these connections and scaffold the learners to develop the skills to be successful.

10.4. 4. Keller's ARCS Motivational Model (any approach) - Table 8.11 p. 175

10.4.1. 1. Attention - Gain and maintain the learner's attention.

10.4.2. 2. Relevance - Make the connection between the instruction and the learner's personal learning goals.

10.4.3. 3. Confidence - Encourage the right amount of confidence in the learners so they make efforts to learn the materials.

10.4.4. 4. Satisfaction - Satisfy the learners that their needs will be met if they complete the instruction.

10.4.5. Motivational strategies in general - Incorporate motivational strategies into your instruction; fosters attitudinal outcomes. Internal or intrinsic motivators - typically more effective than external motivators - includes intriguing or relevant instructional challenges or instruction that is related to the learner's personal goal or interest. Malone and Lepper's 7 Factors of Students' Intrinsic Motivation **NOTE - Choice and challenge are the most effective, per studies- but in my experience with learners, its recognition. External or extrinsic motivators - praise, money, grades.

10.5. 5. Scenario Planing Guidelines - Engage learner with a narrative, maintain interest with providing choices for the learner throughout the instruction. **Note - Table 8.12 pp. 177 - 178.

11. Thinking about Evaluation

11.1. Verify the strategies you've selected support the outcomes and assessment you identified. If they don't the learner will not pass a Level II (Learning) evaluation and will not like the instruction, Level I (Reaction). Failure will most likely also occur at Level III (Behavior) and Level IV (Results) evaluations.